Friulian language lessons

LEZIONS DI LENGHE FURLANE
Robert IVSC – MMXXII

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BOOK FIRST
INTRODUCTION TO FRIULIAN

In this first book, the student will find lessons and exercises enabling him to learn the Friulian language on his own. In the second book, sentences drawn from Holy Scripture are annotated with grammar and vocabulary notes, that the student may further his understanding. With highest recommendation for supplementary study: Friulian lectors to the astounding number of 1127 came together to read aloud every chapter of the Bible; all readings were recorded and put online, for the benefit of Friulians everywhere. The student may listen to the readings in Friulian and follow along with the Friulian text.

Lesson I.

The Friulian demonstrative adjective chest means this. It takes four different forms: chest (this; masculine singular); chescj (these; masculine plural); cheste (this; feminine singular); chestis (these; feminine plural). Consider these examples: chest om (this man); chescj oms (these men); cheste femine (this woman); chestis feminis (these women). Om (man) is a masculine singular noun, wherefore the masculine singular chest is employed to express this man in Friulian: chest om. Oms (men) is a masculine plural noun, wherefore the masculine plural chescj is employed to express these men in Friulian: chescj oms. Femine (woman) is a feminine singular noun, wherefore the feminine singular cheste is employed to express this woman in Friulian: cheste femine. Feminis (women) is a feminine plural noun, wherefore the feminine plural chestis is employed to express these women in Friulian: chestis feminis.

EXERCISES. 1-Use the correct form of chest with the following nouns, all of which are masculine singular and masculine plural: libri, libris (book; books); barcon, barcons (window, windows); fâr, fârs (lighthouse, lighthouses); pari, paris (father, fathers); fradi, fradis (brother, brethren). 2-Use the correct form of chest with the following nouns, all of which are feminine singular and feminine plural: scarpe, scarpis (shoe, shoes); stele, stelis (star, stars); robe, robis (thing, things); mari, maris (mother, mothers); sûr, sûrs (sister, sisters).

ANSWERS. 1-chest libri, chescj libris (this book, these books); chest barcon, chescj barcons (this window, these windows); chest fâr, chescj fârs (this lighthouse, these lighthouses); chest pari, chescj paris (this father, these fathers); chest fradi, chescj fradis (this brother, these brethren). 2-cheste scarpe, chestis scarpis (this shoe, these shoes); cheste stele, chestis stelis (this star, these stars); cheste robe, chestis robis (this thing, these things); cheste mari, chestis maris (this mother, these mothers); cheste sûr, chestis sûrs (this sister, these sisters).

Lesson II.

The Friulian for the third-person singular is takes two different forms: al è (masculine); e je (feminine). The third-person plural are takes but one form: a son (masculine and feminine). The student is now able to form such utterances in Friulian: chest om al è (this man is); chescj oms a son (these men are); cheste femine e je (this woman is); chestis feminis a son (these women are). Friulian employs a mandatory, atonic pronoun: in al è, the atonic pronoun is al (masculine singular), whereas the verb is è; in e je, the atonic pronoun is e (feminine singular), whereas the verb is je; in a son, the atonic pronoun is a (masculine and feminine plural), whereas the verb is son.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: this book is; these books are; this window is; these windows are; this lighthouse is; these lighthouses are; this father is; these fathers are; this brother is; these brethren are. 2-Translate to Friulian: this shoe is; these shoes are; this star is; these stars are; this thing is; these things are; this mother is; these mothers are; this sister is; these sisters are.

ANSWERS. 1-chest libri al è; chescj libris a son; chest barcon al è; chescj barcons a son; chest fâr al è; chescj fârs a son; chest pari al è; chescj paris a son; chest fradi al è; chescj fradis a son. 2-cheste scarpe e je; chestis scarpis a son; cheste stele e je; chestis stelis a son; cheste robe e je; chestis robis a son; cheste mari e je; chestis maris a son; cheste sûr e je; chestis sûrs a son.

Lesson III.

Friulian adjectives come in four forms; take, for instance, the adjective devot (devout), whose four forms are: devot (masculine singular); devots (masculine plural); devote (feminine singular); devotis (feminine plural). The student is now able to form such utterances in Friulian: chest om al è devot (this man is devout); chescj oms a son devots (these men are devout); cheste femine e je devote (this woman is devout); chestis feminis a son devotis (these women are devout). The negated form of al è is nol è; the negated form of e je is no je; the negated form of a son is no son. Consider the following examples: chest om nol è devot (this man is not devout); chescj oms no son devots (these men are not devout); cheste femine no je devote (this woman is not devout); chestis feminis no son devotis (these women are not devout). Learn the following Friulian adjectives before completing the exercises: zovin (young); viert (open); stret (tight).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: this father is young; these fathers are young; this mother is young; these mothers are young; this window is open; these windows are open; this shoe is tight; these shoes are tight. 2-Negate all Friulian translations from the foregoing exercise.

ANSWERS. 1-chest pari al è zovin; chescj paris a son zovins; cheste mari e je zovine; chestis maris a son zovinis; chest barcon al è viert; chescj barcons a son vierts; cheste scarpe e je strete; chestis scarpis a son stretis. 2-chest pari nol è zovin; chescj paris no son zovins; cheste mari no je zovine; chestis maris no son zovinis; chest barcon nol è viert; chescj barcons no son vierts; cheste scarpe no je strete; chestis scarpis no son stretis.

Lesson IV.

The Friulian definite articles are: il, l’, i, la, lis; these are the equivalents of the English definite article the. The Friulian indefinite articles are: un, une; these are the equivalents of the English indefinite article a, an. Study the following examples, all of which use masculine nouns: un libri, il libri, i libris (a book, the book, the books); un barcon, il barcon, i barcons (a window, the window, the windows); un fâr, il fâr, i fârs (a lighthouse, the lighthouse, the lighthouses); un pari, il pari, i paris (a father, the father, the fathers); un fradi, il fradi, i fradis (a brother, the brother, the brethren). From the foregoing examples, the student will note that il and un are employed with masculine singular nouns, whereas i is employed with masculine plural ones. With a masculine singular noun beginning with a vowel, the definite article employed is not il but l’, as in the following examples: l’aiar (the air); l’eroi (the hero); l’imni (the anthem); l’om (the man); l’ûf (the egg). Consider now the following examples, all of which use feminine nouns: une femine, la femine, lis feminis (a woman, the woman, the women); une scarpe, la scarpe, lis scarpis (a shoe, the shoe, the shoes); une stele, la stele, lis stelis (a star, the star, the stars); une mari, la mari, lis maris (a mother, the mother, the mothers); une sûr, la sûr, lis sûrs (a sister, the sister, the sisters). From the foregoing examples, the student will note that la and une are employed with feminine singular nouns, whereas lis is employed with feminine plural ones.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the book is; the books are; the lighthouse is; the lighthouses are; the brother is; the brethren are; the man is; the men are; the egg is; the eggs are. 2-Translate to Friulian: the woman is; the women are; the shoe is; the shoes are; the star is; the stars are; the mother is; the mothers are; the sister is; the sisters are. 3-Translate to Friulian: a man is; a man is not; a father is; a father is not; a brother is; a brother is not; a mother is; a mother is not; a sister is; a sister is not. 4-Translate to Friulian: the men are devout; the men are not devout; the windows are open; the windows are not open; the shoes are tight; the shoes are not tight.

ANSWERS. 1-il libri al è; i libris a son; il fâr al è; i fârs a son; il fradi al è; i fradis a son; l’om al è; i oms a son; l’ûf al è; i ûfs a son. 2-la femine e je; lis feminis a son; la scarpe e je; lis scarpis a son; la stele e je; lis stelis a son; la mari e je; lis maris a son; la sûr e je; lis sûrs a son. 3-un om al è; un om nol è; un pari al è; un pari nol è; un fradi al è; un fradi nol è; une mari e je; une mari no je; une sûr e je; une sûr no je. 4-i oms a son devots; i oms no son devots; i barcons a son vierts; i barcons no son vierts; lis scarpis a son stretis; lis scarpis no son stretis.

Lesson V.

The Friulian subject pronouns are: jo (I; first-person singular); tu (thou; second-person singular); lui (he; masculine, third-person singular); (she; feminine, third-person singular); nualtris (we; first-person plural); vualtris (you; second-person plural); lôr (they; third-person plural). Of nualtris, variants are noaltris and nô, whereas of vualtris, variants are voaltris and vô. Tu, which aligns with the traditional English usage of singular thou (but is not archaic in Friulian whatsoever), is used when addressing a single person on a familiar level, whereas vualtris, which aligns with the traditional English usage of plural you, is used when addressing more than one person on a familiar level. All the foregoing pronouns are tonic: these are employed to give stress, otherwise they are customarily omitted; the atonic pronouns and the verb suffice to indicate which grammatical person is in question. The atonic pronouns are: o (first-person singular); tu (second-person singular), al (masculine, third-person singular), e (feminine, third-person singular), o (first-person plural), o (second-person plural), a (third-person plural). Study the present indicative of jessi (to be), also expressed in Friulian as sei, which, in the case of this verb, is irregular: jo o soi (I am); tu tu sês (thou art); lui al è (he is); jê e je (she is); nualtris o sin (we are); vualtris o sês (you are); lôr a son (they are). Now consider the following, taking note of the presence or absence of tonic pronouns: o soi furlan (I am Friulian); tu sês polac (thou art Polish); jo o soi furlan, ma tu tu sês polac (I am Friulian, but thou art Polish). Take another example: al è vieli (he is old); e je zovine (she is young); lui al è vieli, ma jê e je zovine (he is old, but she is young). Study the four forms of the adjective vieli (old) before completing the exercises: vieli (masculine singular); viele (feminine singular); viei (masculine plural); vielis (feminine plural).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I am old (male); thou art young (female); he is Friulian; she is Friulian; we are Friulian (mixed gender); you are old (females); they are devout (males). 2-Translate to Friulian: he is Polish, but she is Friulian; I am old, but thou art young (females); we are young, but you are old (males).

ANSWERS. 1-o soi vieli; tu sês zovine; al è furlan; e je furlane; o sin furlans; o sês vielis; a son devots. 2-lui al è polac, ma jê e je furlane; jo o soi viele, ma tu tu sês zovine; nualtris o sin zovins, ma vualtris o sês viei.

Lesson VI.

To negate the present indicative forms of jessi provided in the foregoing lesson, the student need only omit the atonic pronoun and add no. The two exceptions to this rule are: in the second-person singular, the atonic pronoun tu is maintained, with no taking its position before it; and in the masculine, third-person singular, the atonic pronoun al contracts with no to form nol. Study the following: jo o soi, jo no soi (I am, I am not); tu tu sês, tu no tu sês (thou art, thou art not); lui al è, lui nol è (he is, he is not); jê e je, jê no je (she is, she is not); nualtris o sin, nualtris no sin (we are, we are not); vualtris o sês, vualtris no sês (you are, you are not); lôr a son, lôr no son (they are, they are not). Given that the tonic pronouns are customarily omitted, all of the foregoing may also be expressed thus in Friulian: o soi, no soi (I am, I am not); tu sês, no tu sês (thou art, thou art not); al è, nol è (he is, he is not); e je, no je (she is, she is not); o sin, no sin (we are, we are not); o sês, no sês (you are, you are not); a son, no son (they are, they are not). Learn the four forms of the Friulian adjective for white before completing the exercises: blanc (masculine singular); blancs (masculine plural); blancje (feminine singular); blancjis (feminine plural).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the window is open; the window is not open; this man is devout; this man is not devout; these women are old; these women are not old; I am not old (female); thou art not young (male); he is not Friulian; she is not Polish; we are not young (males); you are not devout (females); they are not Friulian (mixed gender). 2-Translate to English: chestis feminis a son furlanis, ma chescj oms no son polacs; chescj paris a son viei, e chestis maris a son zovinis; chescj fârs a son blancs; chestis scarpis no son blancjis.

ANSWERS. 1-il barcon al è viert; il barcon nol è viert; chest om al è devot; chest om nol è devot; chestis feminis a son vielis; chestis feminis no son vielis; no soi viele; no tu sês zovin; nol è furlan; no je polache; no sin zovins; no sês devotis; no son furlans. 2-these women are Friulian, but these men are not Polish; these fathers are old, and these mothers are young; these lighthouses are white; these shoes are not white.

Lesson VII.

As the student has by now come to know, Friulian adjectives take four forms. Consider, for instance, the adjective brut, meaning ugly; its four forms are: brut (masculine singular); bruts (masculine plural); brute (feminine singular); brutis (feminine plural). The student is now able to make such utterances in Friulian: chest om al è brut (this man is ugly); chescj oms no son bruts (these men are not ugly); cheste femine no je brute (this woman is not ugly); chestis feminis a son brutis (these women are ugly). Now take the adjective sant, meaning holy, whose four forms are: sant (masculine singular); sants (masculine plural); sante (feminine singular); santis (feminine plural). Consider the following examples, where the adjective modifies a noun: lûc sant (holy place); lûcs sants (holy places); robe sante (holy thing); robis santis (holy things).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: this place is holy; these places are not holy; this lighthouse is not ugly; these lighthouses are ugly; this thing is holy; these things are not holy; the man is Polish; these men are Polish; the woman is not Polish; these women are not Polish; young woman; young women; devout woman; devout women; devout man; devout men; open window; open windows. 2-Say whether the speaker is male or female: o soi furlane; o soi zovine; no soi brut; no soi devote; o soi vieli; o soi polache. 3-Provide as many of the four forms of these adjectives as possible, in the order of masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular and feminine plural, and learn the unknown forms from the answers: complet (complete); neri (black); vert (green); platât (hidden); trist (wicked); just (righteous); fedêl (faithful); leâl (loyal); religjôs (religious); regolâr (regular); irlandês (Irish).

ANSWERS. 1-chest lûc al è sant; chescj lûcs no son sants; chest fâr nol è brut; chescj fârs a son bruts; cheste robe e je sante; chestis robis no son santis; l’om al è polac; chescj oms a son polacs; la femine no je polache; chestis feminis no son polachis; femine zovine; feminis zovinis; femine devote; feminis devotis; om devot; oms devots; barcon viert; barcons vierts. 2-female; female; male; female; male; female. 3-complet, complets, complete, completis; neri, neris, nere, neris; vert, verts, verde, verdis; platât, platâts, platade, platadis; trist, triscj, triste, tristis; just, juscj, juste, justis; fedêl, fedêi, fedêl, fedêls; leâl, lêâi, leâl, leâls; religjôs, religjôs, religjose, religjosis; regolâr, regolârs, regolâr, regolârs; irlandês, irlandês, irlandese, irlandesis.

Lesson VIII.

The Friulian demonstrative adjective chel means that. It takes four different forms: chel (that; masculine singular); chei (those; masculine plural); chê (that; feminine singular); chês (those; feminine plural). Consider these examples: chel om (that man); chei oms (those men); chê femine (that woman); chês feminis (those women).

EXERCISES. 1-Use the correct form of chel with the following nouns, all of which are masculine singular and plural: fantat, fantats (lad, lads); pancôr, pancôrs (baker, bakers); predi, predis (priest, priests); pît, pîts (foot, feet); cunfin, cunfins (border, borders). 2-Use the correct form of chel with the following nouns, all are of which are feminine singular and plural: tiere, tieris (land, lands); spade, spadis (sword, swords); man, mans (hand, hands); cjase, cjasis (house, houses); citât, citâts (city, cities). 3-Translate to Friulian: that lighthouse is not ugly; those lighthouses are white; those priests are devout; that house is white; those women are young; those lands are Irish; this man is Friulian, but that woman is Polish.

ANSWERS. 1-chel fantat, chei fantats (that lad, those lads); chel pancôr, chei pancôrs (that baker, those bakers); chel predi, chei predis (that priest, those priests); chel pît, chei pîts (that foot, those feet); chel cunfin, chei cunfins (that border, those borders). 2-chê tiere, chês tieris (that land, those lands); chê spade, chês spadis (that sword, those swords); chê man, chês mans (that hand, those hands); chê cjase, chês cjasis (that house, those houses); chê citât, chês citâts (that city, those cities). 3-chel fâr nol è brut; chei fârs a son blancj; chei predis a son devots; chê cjase e je blancje; chês feminis a son zovinis; chês tieris a son irlandesis; chest om al è furlan, ma chê femine e je polache.

Lesson IX.

Learn to count from nought to ten in Friulian: zero (0), un (1), doi (2), trê (3), cuatri (4), cinc (5), sîs (6), siet (7), vot (8), nûf (9), dîs (10). Of these, only un and doi are specifically masculine forms; their feminine equivalents are une and dôs. For instance, we speak in Friulian of un fâr (one lighthouse), but une spade (one sword); and we speak of doi fârs (two lighthouses), but dôs spadis (two swords), given that fâr is a masculine noun and spade is a feminine one. The other numerals may used with either a masculine or feminine noun: trê oms (three men), trê feminis (three women), cuatri fradis (four brethren), cuatri sûrs (four sisters), and so on.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: one man; one woman; two priests; two cities; three lads; three houses; four borders; four things; five places; five sisters; six brethren; six mothers; seven fathers; seven stars; eight books; eight shoes; nine windows; nine lands; ten eggs; ten hands. 2-Translate to Friulian: these two books; these two women; those three brethren; those three houses; these five priests are Friulian; those seven things are holy; those ten Irish lads are righteous.

ANSWERS. 1-un om; une femine; doi predis; dôs citâts; trê fantats; trê cjasis; cuatri cunfins; cuatri robis; cinc lûcs; cinc sûrs; sîs fradis; sîs maris; siet paris; siet stelis; vot libris; vot scarpis; nûf barcons; nûf tieris; dîs ûfs; dîs mans. 2-chescj doi libris; chestis dôs feminis; chei trê fradis; chês trê cjasis; chescj cinc predis a son furlans; chês siet robis a son santis; chei dîs fantats irlandês a son juscj.

Lesson X.

Study the present indicative of (to have), which, in the case of this verb, is irregular: jo o ài (I have); tu tu âs (thou hast); lui al à (he has); jê e à (she has); nualtris o vin (we have); vualtris o vês (you have); lôr a àn (they have). Consider a number of examples: o vin une mari devote (we have a devout mother); al à dôs cjasis (he has two houses); e à trê fradis (she has three brethren). Nissun is the equivalent of the English any in negated sentences, with nissune for feminine form: no ài nissun fradi (I have not any brother); no tu âs nissun libri (thou hast not any book); nol à nissune sûr (he has not any sister); no àn nissune cjase (they have not any house). In English, one speaks of being hungry or thirsty; in Friulian, one speaks rather of having hunger or thirst. Consider the following: o ài fan (I am hungry; literally, I have hunger); o ài sêt (I am thirsty; literally, I have thirst). Both fan (hunger) and sêt (thirst) are masculine nouns.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I have six brethren; thou hast not any sister; he has not any brother; she has not any book; you have a white house; he is hungry; you are thirsty; thou art not hungry; they are not thirsty. 2-Say whether nissun or nissune is to be employed with the following nouns: fâr; barcon; predi; stele; ûf; citât.

ANSWERS. 1-o ài sîs fradis; no tu âs nissune sûr; nol à nissun fradi; no à nissun libri; o vês une cjase blancje; al à fan; o vês sêt; no tu âs fan; no àn sêt. 2-nissun; nissun; nissun; nissune; nissun; nissune.

Lesson XI.

In the interrogative, Friulian shifts the atonic pronoun to the end of the verb. Consider first the interrogative of jessi, present indicative: o soi; soio? (I am; am I?); tu sês; sêstu? (thou art; art thou?); al è; isal? (he is; is he?); e je; ise? (she is; is she?); o sin; sino? (we are; are we?); o sês; sêso? (you are; are you?); a son; sono? (they are; are they?). Of isal and ise, variants are esal and ese. A number of examples: sêstu religjôs? (art thou religious?); isal furlan? (is he Friulian?); sêso irlandesis? (are you Irishwomen?); sono triscj? (are they wicked?). Consider now the interrogative of vê, present indicative: o ài; aio? (I have; have I?); tu âs; âstu? (thou hast; hast thou?); al à; aial? (he has; has he?); e à; aie? (she has; has she?); o vin; vino? (we have; have we?); o vês; vêso? (you have; have you?); a àn; àno? (they have; have they?). A number of examples: aial une sûr? (has he a sister?); no àno nissune cjase? (have they not any house?); âstu sêt? (art thou thirsty?; literally, hast thou thirst?).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to English: aio un fradi?; àno fan?; sêstu polac?; isal viert il barcon?; ise blancje la cjase?; sono juscj chei fantats talians? 2-Translate to Friulian: hast thou not any brother?; has this city no holy place?; are those two Friulian sisters devout?; are those three Italian brethren thirsty?

ANSWERS. 1-have I a brother?; are they hungry?; art thou Polish?; is the window open?; is the house white?; are those Italian lads righteous? 2-no âstu nissun fradi?; no aie cheste citât nissun lûc sant?; sono devotis chês dôs sûrs furlanis?; àno sêt chei trê fradis talians?

Lesson XII.

The Friulian fevelâ means to speak. In the present indicative, it takes the following conjugation (tonic pronouns have been omitted): o feveli (I speak); tu fevelis (thou speakest); al fevele (he speaks); e fevele (she speaks); o fevelìn (we speak); o fevelais (you speak); a fevelin (they speak). The student is to take note of the verb endings for each person, which is to say -i; -is; -e; -e; -ìn; -ais; -in; these endings are employed with regular verbs whose infinitive ends in -â, such as fevelâ (to speak), copâ (to kill) and scoltâ (to listen). In the matter of pronunciation, the first-person plural fevelìn is pronounced with stress on the final syllable, whereas the third-person plural fevelin is pronounced with stress on the penultimate. Learn the following: fevelâ furlan (to speak Friulian); fevelâ par furlan (to speak in Friulian); jessi bon di fevelâ furlan (to be able to speak Friulian; literally, to be good at speaking Friulian). Bon is an adjective meaning good; its four forms are: bon (masculine singular); bogns (masculine plural); buine (feminine singular); buinis (feminine plural). Learn also: simpri (always, ever).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I speak Friulian; thou speakest Friulian; he speaks Friulian; she speaks Friulian; we speak Friulian; you speak Friulian; they speak Friulian. 2-Negate all translations from the foregoing exercise. 3-Translate to Friulian: dost thou speak Friulian?; does he speak Friulian?; does she speak Friulian?; do you speak Friulian?; do they speak Friulian? 4-Translate to Friulian, using male forms of adjective: I am able to speak Friulian; thou art not able to speak Friulian; is he able to speak Friulian?; we are not able to speak Friulian; are you able to speak Friulian?; they are not able to speak Friulian. 5-Translate to Friulian, using female forms of adjective: she is able to speak Friulian; is she able to speak Friulian?; is she not able to speak Friulian?; are you not able to speak Friulian?; they are not able to speak Friulian. 6-Translate to Friulian: I always speak in Friulian; do I always speak in Friulian?; does he always speak in Friulian?; do we not always speak in Friulian?; they do not always speak in Friulian. 7-Translate to Friulian: I kill; thou killest not; he listens; he listens not; she listens not; we kill; you kill; they listen not.

ANSWERS. 1-o feveli furlan; tu fevelis furlan; al fevele furlan; e fevele furlan; o fevelìn furlan; o fevelais furlan; a fevelin furlan. 2-no feveli furlan; no tu fevelis furlan; nol fevele furlan; no fevele furlan; no fevelìn furlan; no fevelais furlan; no fevelin furlan. 3-fevelistu furlan?; fevelial furlan?; fevelie furlan?; fevelaiso furlan?; fevelino furlan? 4-o soi bon di fevelâ furlan; no tu sês bon di fevelâ furlan; isal bon di fevelâ furlan?; no sin bogns di fevelâ furlan; sêso bogns di fevelâ furlan?; no son bogns di fevelâ furlan. 5-e je buine di fevelâ furlan; ise buine di fevelâ furlan?; no ise buine di fevelâ furlan?; no sêso buinis di fevelâ furlan?; no son buinis di fevelâ furlan. 6-o feveli simpri par furlan; fevelio simpri par furlan?; fevelial simpri par furlan?; no fevelìno simpri par furlan?; no fevelin simpri par furlan. 7-o copi; no tu copis; al scolte; nol scolte; no scolte; o copìn; o copais; no scoltin.

Lesson XIII.

The Friulian capî means to understand. The student will note that it takes its ending in -î, unlike the infinitives encountered in the last lesson, which end in -â; it is for this reason that capî conjugates differently to fevelâ, copâ and scoltâ. In the present indicative, capî takes the following conjugation: o capìs (I understand); tu capissis (thou understandest); al capìs (he understands); e capìs (she understands); o capìn (we understand); o capîs (you understand); a capissin (they understand). Consider now the following: o capìs; lu capìs; no lu capìs (I understand; I understand it; I understand it not); tu capissis; tu lu capissis; no tu lu capissis (thou understandest; thou understandest it; thou understandest it not). Names of languages: il furlan (Friulian); il talian (Italian); il polac (Polish); l’inglês (English); il rus (Russian).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: do I understand Friulian?; dost thou understand Italian?; does he understand Polish?; does she understand English?; do we understand Russian?; do you understand Friulian?; do they understand Italian? 2-he understands it and speaks it; he does not understand it and does not speak it; she understands it but does not speak it; I do not understand it and do not speak it; we understand it but do not speak it; they understand it and speak it; they do not speak it but do understand it.

ANSWERS. 1-il furlan lu capissio?; il talian lu capissistu?; il polac lu capissial?; l’inglês lu capissie?; il rus lu capìno?; il furlan lu capîso?; il talian lu capissino? 2-lu capìs e lu fevele; no lu capìs e no lu fevele; lu capìs ma no lu fevele; no lu capìs e no lu feveli; lu capìn ma no lu fevelìn; lu capissin e lu fevelin; no lu fevelin ma lu capissin.

Lesson XIV.

The student is reminded that means to have; when this is followed by di and an infinitive, sense of obligation is conveyed. In this way, the Friulian vê di aligns with the English to have to. Consider these examples: o ài di fevelâ (I have to speak; I must speak); al à di scoltâ (he has to listen; he must listen); o vin di capî (we have to understand; we must understand). Learn the following: lavorâ (to work); studiâ (to study); lâ vie (to leave); restâ (to remain). In the case of lâ vie, the student will note that means to go, whereas vie means away; taken together, lâ vie means to leave. Learn also: la lenghe (language); cumò (now).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I have to work; thou hast to study; he has to leave; she has to remain; we have to work; you have to study; they have to leave. 2-Translate to Friulian: have I now to work?; hast thou now to study?; has he now to leave?; has she now to remain?; have we now to work?; have you now to study?; have they now to leave? 3-Translate to Friulian: I have not to remain; thou hast not work; he has not to study; she has not to leave; we have not to remain; you have not to work; they have not to study. 4-Translate to Friulian: I must study this language; thou must remain in this city; these five Irish lads must leave; must you speak in Friulian?; must they not understand this language?; thou must not listen to that man.

ANSWERS. 1-o ài di lavorâ; tu âs di studiâ; al à di lâ vie; e à di restâ; o vin di lavorâ; o vês di studiâ; a àn di lâ vie. 2-aio cumò di lavorâ?; âstu cumò di studiâ?; aial cumò di lâ vie?; aie cumò di restâ?; vino cumò di lavorâ?; vêso cumò di studiâ?; àno cumò di lâ vie? 3-no ài di restâ; no tu âs di lavorâ; nol à di studiâ; no à di lâ vie; no vin di restâ; no vês di lavorâ; no àn di studiâ. 4-o ài di studiâ cheste lenghe; tu âs di restâ in cheste citât; chescj cinc fantats irlandês a àn di lâ vie; vêso di fevelâ par furlan?; no àno di capî cheste lenghe?; no tu âs di scoltâ chel om.

Lesson XV.

Finî, meaning to finish, takes its conjugation in the present indicative after the manner of capî, seen at lesson XIII. Learn it now: o finìs (I finish); tu finissis (thou finishest); al finìs (he finishes); e finìs (she finishes); o finìn (we finish); o finîs (you finish); a finissin (they finish). The Friulian for year is the masculine noun an; in the plural, it takes the form agns (years), so that, for instance, one year is un an, and two years is doi agns. Learn: cuant? (when?); vuê (today); finî i agns (to be one’s birthday; literally, to finish the years).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: today is his birthday; today is her birthday; today is his eighth birthday; today is her ninth birthday; when is my birthday?; when is thy birthday?; when is his birthday?; when is her third birthday? 2-Translate to Friulian: I finish at four; he finishes at three; she finishes at seven; we finish at two; do they finish at five?; do you not finish today at eight?; when dost thou finish?; when do they finish? 3-Recite the present indicative conjugation of fevelâ, scoltâ, capî, finî. 4-Negate the present indicative conjugation of finî.

ANSWERS. 1-vuê al finìs i agns; vuê e finìs i agns; vuê al finìs vot agns; vuê e finìs nûf agns; cuant finissio i agns?; cuant finissistu i agns?; cuant finissial i agns? cuant finissie trê agns? 2-o finìs a cuatri; al finìs a trê; e finìs a siet; o finìn a dôs; finissino a cinc?; no finîso vuê a vot?; cuant finissistu?; cuant finissino? 3-fevelâ (see lesson XII); scoltâ (o scolti; tu scoltis; al scolte; e scolte; o scoltìn; o scoltais; a scoltin); capî (see lesson XIII); finî (see current lesson). 4-no finìs; no tu finissis; nol finìs; no finìs; no finìn; no finîs; no finissin.

Lesson XVI.

The Friulian plasê means to be pleasing; this is a regular verb whose infinitive takes its ending in -ê, unlike the regular verbs encountered heretofore, whose infinitives have taken for ending or -î. Of plasê, study the present indicative conjugation: o plâs (I am pleasing); tu plasis (thou art pleasing); al plâs (he is pleasing, it is pleasing); e plâs (she is pleasing, it is pleasing); o plasìn (we are pleasing); o plasês (you are pleasing); a plasin (they are pleasing). Study also these indirect object pronouns: mi (to me); ti (to thee); i (to him, to her, to it); nus (to us); us (to you); ur (to them). Consider now these examples of use: al plâs; ur plâs (it is pleasing; it is pleasing to them); a plasin; mi plasin (they are pleasing; they are pleasing to me); a plasin; no ti plasin (they are pleasing; they are not pleasing to thee); mi plâs chest libri (this book is pleasing to me, which is to say, I like this book); no i plâs chê musiche (that music is not pleasing to him, which is to say, he does not like that music); ur plasin chestis dôs citâts (these two cities are pleasing to them, which is to say, they like these two cities).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I like this house; dost thou like that lighthouse?; he does not like these shoes; John likes not these shoes; Mary likes those white shoes; does Matthew like those lighthouses?; Mark likes this sword; does Mark like these swords?; we like to speak when we work; do they like this city?; do they like that book?; art thou speaking to me in Slovene?; I am not speaking to thee in Slovene, but in Friulian.

ANSWERS. 1-mi plâs cheste cjase; ti plasial chel fâr?; no i plasin chestis scarpis; no i plasin chestis scarpis a Zuan; i plasin chês scarpis blancjis a Marie; i plasino chei fârs a Matieu?; i plâs cheste spade a Marc; i plasino chestis spadis a Marc?; nus plâs fevelâ cuant che o lavorìn; ur plasie cheste citât?; ur plasial chel libri?; mi fevelistu par sloven?; no ti feveli par sloven, ma par furlan.

Lesson XVII.

Savê is Friulian for to know; this is an irregular verb, wherefore it follows not the conjugation model of plasê encountered at the last lesson. Study its present indicative conjugation: o sai (I know); tu sâs (thou knowest); al sa (he knows); e sa (she knows); o savìn (we know); o savês (you know); a san (they know). Learn the following new vocabulary: doman (tomorrow); il siopar (strike); ben (well); cualchidun (anyone, someone); ce (what); (to do); (to say, to tell). The student will heed the pronunciation note provided after the answers below.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I know that today is thy birthday; I know that tomorrow there is a strike; I know that this book is good; thou knowest not what thou hast; knowest thou that those lads are Irish?; knowest thou not that these women are devout?; he knows how to speak well; he knows how to speak two languages; does anyone know that Luke is able to speak Latin?; she knows well that I have not any brother; we know not what to do; we know not what to tell thee; you know what it is and what you have to do; they know not what to tell me; know they not what to tell you?; those two Polish lads know not well what they have to tell us.

ANSWERS. 1-o sai che vuê tu finissis i agns; o sai che doman al è un siopar; o sai che al è bon chest libri; no tu sâs ce che tu âs; sâstu che a son irlandês chei fantats?; no sâstu che a son devotis chestis feminis?; al sa fevelâ ben; al sa fevelâ dôs lenghis; cualchidun saial che Luche al è bon di fevelâ latin?; e sa ben che no ài nissun fradi; no savìn ce fâ; no savìn ce dîti; o savês ce che al è e ce che o vês di fâ; no san ce dîmi; no sano ce dîus?; chei doi fantats polacs no san ben ce che a àn di dînus. Pronunciation note: In speech, che al contracts to ch’al (sounds like kal); che a contracts to ch’a (sounds like ka); che o contracts to ch’o (sounds like ko). For instance, o sai che al è bon is pronounced not in six syllables but five: o sai ch’al è bon.

Lesson XVIII.

Cui is Friulian for who. Consider: cui sêstu? (who art thou?); cui isal? (who is he?); cui ise? (who is she?). In the foregoing examples, the interrogative form of verb is employed with the interrogative cui. This same effect, as the student has already encountered, does the interrogative cuant have on the verb: cuant finissial i agns? (when is his birthday?); cuant fevelistu par furlan? (when speakest thou in Friulian?). When cui and cuant are employed as relative pronouns, they are followed rather by che, without the interrogative form of verb, for it is no longer matter of a question: mi plâs fevelâ cuant che o lavori (I like to speak when I work); no sai cui che al è (I know not who he is). New vocabulary: il cjaliâr (shoemaker); il becjâr (butcher); cun (with).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: who is that shoemaker?; knowest thou who that shoemaker is?; who are those butchers?; I know not who those butchers are; when have you to speak in Friulian?; when is it that you must speak in English?; when must that lad to listen to these men?; who is it that must speak with this monk?; I know not who thou art; thou knowest not who thou art; who are those who understand this language?; we know not who those men are who understand this language; he who is Friulian speaks in Friulian.

ANSWERS. 1-cui isal chel cjaliâr?; sâstu cui che al è chel cjaliâr?; cui sono chei becjârs?; no sai cui che a son chei becjârs; cuant vêso di fevelâ par furlan?; cuant isal che o vês di fevelâ par inglês?; cuant aial chel fantat di scoltâ chescj oms?; cui isal che al à di fevelâ cun chest munic?; no sai cui che tu sês; no tu sâs cui che tu sês; cui sono chei che a capissin cheste lenghe?; no savìn cui che a son chei oms che a capissin cheste lenghe; cui che al è furlan al fevele par furlan.

Lesson XIX.

Learn the following, some of which the student has already encountered: ce (what), cemût (how), cuant (when), cui (who), dulà (where), parcè (why), trop (how much, how many). Of dulà, variants are and indulà. Trop knows four different forms: trop (masculine singular); trops (masculine plural), trope (feminine singular); tropis (feminine plural); the masculine plural trops is pronounced without the p. The Friulian tasê means to keep quiet; its conjugation follows that of plasê; study it now, in its present indicative form: o tâs (I keep quiet); tu tasis (thou keepest quiet); al tâs (he keeps quiet); e tâs (she keeps quiet); o tasìn (we keep quiet); o tasês (you keep quiet); a tasin (they keep quiet). A number of new vocabulary items have been incorporated into the exercises for the student to learn.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: why keepest thou quiet?; why does that lad not keep quiet?; what hast thou that thou keepest quiet?; who are those monks who keep quiet?; how is it possible?; when is it that I am to keep quiet?; where is it that we must listen to that man?; of these French lighthouses how many do you like?; of those women how many are Irish?; of these Canadian priests how many are they who speak Latin?; how much milk must I buy? 2-Translate to Friulian: I know not why I speak so; I know why those two women keep quiet like that; they know not how it is possible; I understand where it is that I am to speak in Friulian; John knows not what he is to do; I know how important it is; we know how many Friulians they are who speak Friulian; you know not who I am; they understand me well when I speak in Friulian; of these women we know not how many they are who speak Polish.

ANSWERS. 1-parcè tasistu?; parcè no tasial chel fantat?; ce âstu che tu tasis?; cui sono chei munics che a tasin?; cemût isal pussibil?; cuant isal che o ài di tasê?; dulà isal che o vin di scoltâ chel om?; di chescj fârs francês trops us plasino?; di chês feminis tropis sono irlandesis?; di chescj predis canadês trops sono che a fevelin latin?; trop lat aio di comprâ? 2-no sai parcè che o feveli cussì; o sai parcè che a tasin cussì chês dôs feminis; no san cemût che al è pussibil; o capìs dulà che al è che o ài di fevelâ par furlan; Zuan nol sa ce che al à di fâ; o sai trop che al è impuartant; o savìn trops furlans che a son che a fevelin furlan; vualtris no savês cui che o soi; lôr mi capissin ben cuant che o feveli par furlan; di chestis feminis no savìn tropis che a son che a fevelin polac.

Lesson XX.

Viodi is Friulian for to see. The student will note that this infinitive ends in -i, and not in the accented of, for instance, finî and capî. Whereas with finî and capî the stress falls on the final syllable, the stress in viodi falls on the penultimate. Now to its present indicative conjugation: o viôt (I see); tu viodis (thou seest); al viôt (he sees); e viôt (she sees); o viodìn (we see); o viodês (you see); a viodin (they see). When viodi is followed by di, the meaning becomes one of to take care of, to see to. Compare: il vuardean al viôt il fâr (the guardian sees the lighthouse); il vuardean al viôt dal fâr (the guardian takes care of the lighthouse). In the foregoing example, di (of, from) has contracted with the masculine singular il to form dal. Of di, learn the four contractions: dal (di + masculine singular il); dai (di + masculine plural i); de (di + feminine singular la); des (di + feminine plural lis). Study these examples: il muini; dal muini (the sacristan; of the sacristan); i muinis; dai muinis (the sacristans; of the sacristans); la glesie; de glesie (the church; of the church); lis glesiis; des glesiis (the churches; of the churches).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I see those two men; seest thou the stars?; seest thou that thou understandest not?; how does he see the situation?; why do we not see the stars?; see you that we are thirsty?; whom see you with that priest?; what do they see now? 2-Translate to Friulian: that guardian takes care of the border; those guardians take care of the lighthouses; this sacristan takes care of the church; these sacristans take care of the churches; who are those who see to the houses?; that woman takes care of Mark’s father; we must see to this situation; these two shoemakers see to the shoes of the men of this city.

ANSWERS. 1-o viôt chei doi oms; viodistu lis stelis?; viodistu che no tu capissis?; cemût viodial la situazion?; parcè no viodìno lis stelis?; viodêso che o vin sêt?; cui viodêso cun chel predi?; ce viodino cumò? 2-chel vuardean al viôt dal cunfin; chei vuardeans a viodin dai fârs; chest muini al viôt de glesie; chescj muinis a viodin des glesiis; cui sono chei che a viodin des cjasis?; chê femine e viôt dal pari di Marc; o vin di viodi di cheste situazion; chescj doi cjaliârs a viodin des scarpis dai oms di cheste citât.

Lesson XXI.

The Friulian meti means to put; its present indicative conjugation is: o met (I put); tu metis (thou puttest); al met (he puts); e met (she puts); o metìn (we put); o metês (you put); a metin (they put). At lesson XX, the student encountered the contractions of di; he will now consider the contractions of in, which is Friulian for in, into: tal (in + masculine singular il); tai (in + masculine plural i); te (in + feminine singular la); tes (in + feminine plural lis). Examples: il gjornâl; tal gjornâl (the newspaper; in the newspaper); i gjornâi; tai gjornâi (the newspapers; in the newspapers); la scjatule; te scjatule (the box; in the box); lis scjatulis; tes scjatulis (the boxes; in the boxes). Of these contractions, variants are: intal, intai, inte, intes, so that the following are also possible: intal gjornâl (in the newspaper); intai gjornâi (in the newspapers); inte scjatule (in the box); intes scjatulis (in the boxes). The preposition in moreover contracts with the indefinite articles to form intun (in + masculine singular un) and intune (in + feminine singular une), for instance: intun gjornâl (in a newspaper); intune scjatule (in a box). A few Friulian locutions employing the solitary in include: in veretât (in truth); in bataie (in battle); in buine fede (in good faith).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the white shoes are in the box; the lads are putting the books into the boxes; thou must put this Italian newspaper into the box; the monk is in the church; the sacristan is speaking in Friulian with the priest in the church; in truth these shoemakers understand well what they are to do; those French lads always speak in good faith; the righteous kill the wicked in battle; the monks keep quiet in the holy places. 2-Translate to Friulian: am I to put the newspapers into the boxes?; is the sacristan to take care of the things which are in the church?; does that baker work in this city?; does that Canadian guardian not work in this lighthouse?; are the Polish priests speaking in the church?; why puttest thou the sword into the hands of that wicked man?; must I put the shoes into a box?

ANSWERS. 1-lis scarpis blancjis a son te scjatule; i fantats a metin i libris tes scjatulis; tu âs di meti chest gjornâl talian te scjatule; il munic al è te glesie; il muini al fevele par furlan cul predi te glesie; in veretât chescj cjaliârs a capissin ben ce che a àn di fâ; chei fantats francês a fevelin simpri in buine fede; i juscj a copin i triscj in bataie; i munics a tasin tai lûcs sants. 2-aio di meti i gjornâi tes scjatulis?; aial il muini di viodi des robis che a son te glesie?; lavorial in cheste citât chel pancôr?; no lavorial in chest fâr chel vuardean canadês?; fevelino te glesie i predis polacs?; parcè metistu la spade tes mans di chel om trist?; aio di meti lis scarpis intune scjatule?

Lesson XXII.

The Friulian for with is cun, which contracts with the definite and indefinite articles: cul (cun + masculine singular il); cui (cun + masculine plural i); cu la (cun + feminine singular la); cu lis (cun + feminine plural lis); cuntun (cun + masculine singular un); cuntune (cun + feminine singular une). Examples: cul om (with the man); cu la femine (with the woman); cui fantats (with the lads); cu lis mans (with the hands); cuntun pancôr (with a baker); cuntune sûr (with a sister). The student will note that cu lis mans (with the hands) functions as equivalent to the English with one’s hands; for instance, lavorâ cu lis mans (to work with one’s hands). New vocabulary: The masculine noun popul means people, in the sense of nation; for instance, il popul furlan (the Friulian people, the Friulian nation).

EXERCISES. 1-Provide the contraction of di, in and cun with the definite article for each of the nouns which follow: scjatule; fede; gjornâl; fâr; scjatulis; tieris; gjornâi; libris. 2-Translate to Friulian: I must work with a butcher; thou must speak with a man of faith; they are speaking in Polish with a monk; this is a people with a land and a language; are those lads speaking with a devout mother?; I must listen to the priest with this sacristan; the butcher works with his hands; I work with my hands to put the books and the newspapers into the boxes; thou must kill him with the sword.

ANSWERS. 1-de scjatule, te scjatule, cu la scjatule (of the box, in the box, with the box); de fede, te fede, cu la fede (of the faith, in the faith, with the faith); dal gjornâl, tal gjornâl, cul gjornâl (of the newspaper, in the newspaper, with the newspaper); dal fâr, tal fâr, cul fâr (of the lighthouse, in the lighthouse, with the lighthouse); des scjatulis, tes scjatulis, cu lis scjatulis (of the boxes, in the boxes, with the boxes); des tieris, tes tieris, cu lis tieris (of the lands, in the lands, with the lands); dai gjornâi, tai gjornâi, cui gjornâi (of the newspapers, in the newspapers, with the newspapers); dai libris, tai libris, cui libris (of the books, in the books, with the books). 2-o ài di lavorâ cuntun becjâr; tu âs di fevelâ cuntun om di fede; a fevelin par polac cuntun munic; chest al è un popul cuntune tiere e une lenghe; fevelino chei fantats cuntune mari devote?; o ài di scoltâ il predi cun chest muini; il becjâr al lavore cu lis mans; o lavori cu lis mans par meti i libris e i gjornâi tes scjatulis; tu âs di copâlu cu la spade.

Lesson XXIII.

Volê is an irregular verb meaning to want. So does it conjugate in the present indicative: o vuei (I want); tu vuelis (thou wantest); al vûl (he wants); e vûl (she wants); o volìn (we want); o volês (you want); a vuelin (they want). Of tu vuelis, a variant is tu vûs. The Friulian a means at, to, unto; this preposition contracts with definite articles: al (a + masculine singular il); ai (a + masculine plural i); a la (a + feminine singular la); a lis (a + feminine plural lis). Example: lâ al cine (to go to the cinema). The student will note that the feminine forms a la and a lis avoid contraction; however, contracted forms thereof are indeed possible: ae (equivalent to a la) and aes (equivalent to a lis), but ae and aes will not be employed in these lessons. Two Friulian locutions employing the solitary a include: lâ a vore (to go to work); lâ a scuele (to go to school). Both vore (work) and scuele (school) are feminine nouns. At lesson XVI, the student encountered the indirect object pronouns of Friulian; these are needed to make utterances of the sort: il predi i fevele cussì al munic (the priest speaks so to the monk); chei fantats ur fevelin in buine fede ai oms (those lads speak in good faith to the men). In the foregoing examples, it is insufficient to say only al munic and ai oms; these must be accompanied by i (to him) for the former, and by ur (to them) for the latter.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: John speaks to the man; John speaks to the men; John speaks to the woman; John speaks to the women; the baker speaks in Friulian to John; the shoemaker speaks in Friulian to the lads; who is that man who speaks of these things to the women?; who are those men who want to speak of these things to the women?; why speakest thou to the wicked man? 2-Translate to Friulian: wilt thou go now to the cinema?; the lads want not to go to school; the men want to go to work; I have to go to work with the men; those men want not to speak to us.

ANSWERS. 1-Zuan i fevele al om; Zuan ur fevele ai oms; Zuan i fevele a la femine; Zuan ur fevele a lis feminis; il pancôr i fevele par furlan a Zuan; il cjaliâr ur fevele par furlan ai fantats; cui isal chel om che ur fevele di chestis robis a lis feminis?; cui sono chei oms che a vuelin fevelâur di chestis robis a lis feminis?; parcè i fevelistu al om trist? 2-vuelistu lâ cumò al cine?; i fantats no vuelin lâ a scuele; i oms a vuelin lâ a vore; o ài di lâ a vore cui oms; chei oms no vuelin fevelânus.

Lesson XXIV.

is Friulian for to give; its conjugation is irregular. Present indicative: o doi (I give); tu dâs (thou givest); al da (he gives); e da (she gives); o din (we give); o dais (you give); a dan (they give). As for domandâ, this is Friulian for to ask; its conjugation is regular and follows that of fevelâ (lesson XII). With and domandâ, we may say the following: dâ il permès (to give permission); domandâ il permès (to ask permission). Consider these examples: mi dan il permès di fevelâ (they give unto me the permission to speak; or put more simply in English, they give me permission to speak); ti domandi il permès di fevelâ (I ask unto thee the permission to speak; or put more simply in English, I ask thee permission to speak). Just as permission is given unto a man, so is it asked unto him, though the omission of unto (or to) be frequent in English; the student may refer to the indirect object pronouns of Friulian provided at lesson XVI.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the man gives the book to me; I give the book to the man; I give the boxes to the lads; the lads give him the sword; the lads give the man the sword; the lads give John the sword; the women give us the boxes; we give the women the boxes; we give thee permission to speak; givest thou me permission to listen?; givest thou her permission to buy?; they give you not permission to take care of the house; the shoemaker wants to speak to the lad and give him these shoes; the priest wants to speak to the men and give them these books; the monk wants to give me these holy things. 2-Translate to Friulian: is he asking the man permission to put the newspaper into the box?; I am not asking them permission to speak; they ask him why he wants to learn Russian; they ask me for information.

ANSWERS. 1-l’om mi da il libri; i doi il libri al om; ur doi lis scjatulis ai fantats; i fantats i dan la spade; i fantats i dan la spade al om; i fantats i dan la spade a Zuan; lis feminis nus dan lis scjatulis; ur din lis scjatulis a lis feminis; ti din il permès di fevelâ; mi dâstu il permès di scoltâ?; i dâstu il permès di comprâ?; no us dan il permès di viodi de cjase; il cjaliâr al vûl fevelâi al fantat i dâi chestis scarpis; il predi al vûl fevelâur ai oms i dâur chescj libris; il munic al vûl dâmi chestis robis santis. 2-i domandial il permès al om di meti il gjornâl te scjatule?; no ur domandi il permès di fevelâ; i domandin parcè che al vûl imparâ il rus; mi domandin une informazion.

Lesson XXV.

The imperative is employed to give commands; it takes an affirmative form (do this, do that) and a negated form (do this not, do that not). The student will first consider the negated form. To give a negated command in Friulian, the student will position one of the following before an infinitive: no sta (second-person singular); no stait a (second-person plural); no stin a (first-person plural). Examples: no sta fevelâ (speak {thou} not); no stait a fevelâ (speak {you} not); no stin a fevelâ (let us not speak). The second-person singular form is employed when speaking to one person on a familar level, whereas the second-person plural form is employed when speaking to more than one person on a familiar level. Dut is Friulian for all; it takes four forms: dut (masculine singular); ducj (masculine plural); dute (feminine singular); dutis (feminine plural). Examples: ducj i oms (all the men); dutis lis feminis (all the women).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian, second-person singular: listen not; kill not; put not; do not buy; do not ask; do not give; do not put all the books into the boxes; do not tell the man what I have to do; tell not the men who I am; do not give all these things to the lads. 2-Translate to Friulian, second-person plural: give not the lads permission to speak; ask them not permission to do these things; do not listen to the wicked men. 3-Translate to Friulian, first-person plural: let us not speak to the women; let us not give them any book; let us not do these things. 4-Employ the correct form of dut before each of the following: la vore; i munics; il lat; lis spadis.

ANSWERS. 1-no sta scoltâ; no sta copâ; no sta meti; no sta comprâ; no sta domandâ; no sta dâ; no sta meti ducj i libris tes scjatulis; no sta dîi al om ce che o ài di fâ; no sta dîur ai oms cui che o soi; no sta dâur ai fantats dutis chestis robis. 2-no stait a daûr ai fantats il permès di fevelâ; no stait a domandâur il permès di fâ chestis robis; no stait a scoltâ i oms triscj. 3-no stin a fevelâur a lis feminis; no stin a dâur nissun libri; no stin a fâ chestis robis. 4-dute la vore (all the work); ducj i munics (all the monks); dut il lat (all the milk); dutis lis spadis (all the swords).

Lesson XXVI.

The student will now begin to examine the Friulian imperative in its affirmative form, taking fevelâ as a model for regular verbs whose infinitive ends in -â. Consider: fevele (speak {thou}; second-person singular); fevelait (speak {you}; second-person plural); fevelìn (let us speak; first-person plural). The verb endings to be retained, as can be ascertained from the foregoing examples, are -e, -ait and -ìn. Another example: cope (kill {thou}); copait (kill {you}); copìn (let us kill). Consider now the following, where the second-person singular -e becomes -i- before the suffixed pronoun: copilu (kill him); copile (kill her); copiju (kill them; males or mixed gender are to be killed); copilis (kill them; females are to be killed). These are the direct object pronouns of Friulian: mi (me); ti (thee); lu (him, it); le (her, it); nus (us); us (you); ju (them; masculine); lis (them; feminine); it was at lesson XVI that the indirect object pronouns were presented.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate the following commands to Friulian, second-person singular: work; remain; listen; ask; buy; kill; study. 2-Translate the same, second-person plural. 3-Translate the same, first-person plural. 4-Negate the same, all three persons. 5-Translate to Friulian, second-person singular: buy it; buy them; buy them not; speak to him; speak to them; speak not to them; speak to us; ask me. 6-Translate to Friulian, second-person plural: listen to her; ask her; kill her; speak to us. 7-Translate to Friulian, first-person plural: let us buy it; let us kill them; let us speak to her; let us ask them.

ANSWERS. 1-lavore; reste; scolte; domande; compre; cope; studie. 2-lavorait; restait; scoltait; domandait; comprait; copait; studiait. 3-lavorìn; restìn; scoltìn; domandìn; comprìn; copìn; studiìn. 4-no sta lavorâ, no stait a lavorâ, no stin a lavorâ; no sta restâ, no stait a restâ, no stin a restâ; no sta scoltâ, no stait a scoltâ, no stin a scoltâ; no sta domandâ, no stait a domandâ, no stin a domandâ; no sta comprâ, no stait a comprâ, no stin a comprâ; no sta copâ, no stait a copâ, no stin a copâ; no sta studiâ, no stait a studiâ, no stin a studiâ. 5-comprilu; compriju; no sta comprâju; fevelii; feveliur; no sta fevelâur; fevelinus; domandimi. 6-scoltaitle; domandaitji; copaitle; fevelaitnus. Here the student must note that scoltaitle translates after the Friulian manner as listen her, and domandaitji as ask unto her. He will also note the insertion of -j- between the second-person plural -ait- and the vowel -i; more examples: fevelaitji (speak to him); fevelaitjur (speak to them); domandaitji (ask her); domandaitjur (ask them). 7-comprìnlu; copìnju; fevelìnji; domandìnjur.

Lesson XXVII.

Of tasê, learn the affirmative imperative: tâs (keep {thou} quiet); tasêt (keep {you} quiet); tasìn (let us keep quiet). Of finî, learn the same: finìs (finish {thou}); finît (finish {you}); finìn (let us finish). Of viodi, learn the same: viôt (see {thou}); viodêt (see {you}); viodìn (let us see). The student will use these as models to complete the exercises. New vocabulary: cjapâ (to take); crodi (to believe).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate the following commands to Friulian, second-person singular: kill; take; keep quiet; understand; finish; see; believe. 2-Translate the same, second-person plural. 3-Translate the same, first-person plural. 4-Translate to Friulian: kill (you) it; take (you) it; kill (thou) it; take (thou) it; understand (thou) me; finish (thou) them; believe (thou) me; let us finish them. 5-Translate to Friulian: see (thou) to finishing the work; see (you) to finishing the work; speak (you) not to us in Italian because we understand it not; buy (thou) me a book; put (thou) the book into the box; put (you) these books into the boxes; let us put these shoes into the white boxes.

ANSWERS. 1-cope; cjape; tâs; capìs; finìs; viôt; crôt. 2-copait; cjapait; tasêt; capît; finît; viodêt; crodêt. 3-copìn; cjapìn; tasìn; capìn; finìn; viodìn; crodìn. 4-copaitlu; cjapaitlu; copilu; cjapilu; capissimi; finissiju; crodimi; finìnju. 5-viôt di finî la vore; viodêt di finî la vore; no stait a fevelânus par talian parcè che no lu capìn; comprimi un libri; met il libri te scjatule; metêt chescj libris tes scjatulis; metìn chestis scarpis tes scjatulis blancjis.

Lesson XXVIII.

The Friulian for the lad gives the book to me is il fantat mi da il libri, whereas the Friulian for the lad gives it to me is il fantat mal da. Mal is the contraction of the indirect object pronoun mi (to me) and the direct object pronoun lu (it), where lu stands in for the masculine singular il libri (the book). Consider: il fantat al da il libri (the lad gives the book); il fantat lu da (the lad gives it); il fantat mal da (the lad gives it to me). The direct object pronouns lu (him, it; masculine singular), ju (them; masculine plural), le (her, it; feminine singular) and lis (them; feminine plural) contract with mi to form mal, mai, me, mes, respectively. Another example: il fantat al da la scjatule (the lad gives the box); il fantat le da (the lad gives it); il fantat me da (the lad gives it to me). In a similar way, the indirect object pronoun ti (to thee) contracts with the four direct object pronouns to form tal, tai, te, tes. New vocabulary: la bandiere (flag); neri (black).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the priest gives the permission-the priest gives it to me; the lad gives the newspapers-the lad gives them to me; the guardian gives the Friulian flag-the guardian gives it to me; the shoemaker gives the shoes-the shoemaker gives them to me. 2-Translate to Friulian: this permission, the priest gives it not to thee; these newspapers, the lad gives them not to thee; this Friulian flag, the guardian gives it not to thee; these shoes, the shoemaker gives them not to thee. 3-Translate to Friulian: these Friulian flags, the lad wants to give them to me; these black shoes, the shoemaker wants to give them to thee; this Italian newspaper, the man wants not to give it to me; these books, the lads want not to give them to thee.

ANSWERS. 1-il predi al da il permès-il predi mal da; il fantat al da i gjornâi-il fantat mai da; il vuardean al da la bandiere furlane-il vuardean me da; il cjaliâr al da lis scarpis-il cjaliâr mes da. 2-chest permès, il predi no tal da; chescj gjornâi, il fantat no tai da; cheste bandiere furlane, il vuardean no te da; chestis scarpis, il cjaliâr no tes da. 3-chestis bandieris furlanis, il fantat al vûl dâmes; chestis scarpis neris, il cjaliâr al vûl dâtes; chest gjornâl talian, l’om nol vûl dâmal; chescj libris, i fantats no vuelin dâtai.

Lesson XXIX.

The Friulian for the woman gives the book to him is la femine i da il libri, whereas the Friulian for the woman gives it to him is la femine jal da. Jal is the contraction of the indirect object pronoun i (to him, to her, to it) and the direct object pronoun lu (it), where lu stands in for the masculine singular il libri (the book). Consider: la femine e da (the woman gives); la femine i da (the woman gives to him); la femine i da il libri (the women gives the book to him); la femine lu da (the woman gives it); la femine jal da (the woman gives it to him). The direct object pronouns lu (him, it; masculine singular), ju (them; masculine plural), le (her, it; feminine singular) and lis (them; feminine plural) contract with i to form jal, jai, je, jes, respectively. Another example: lis feminis a dan (the women give); lis feminis i dan (the women give to her); lis feminis i dan lis scjatulis (the women give the boxes to her); lis feminis lis dan (the women give them); lis feminis jes dan (the women give them to her). Of dâ, learn the imperative: da (give {thou}; second-person singular); dait (give {you}; second-person plural); din (let us give; first person plural).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the permission, the priest gives it to him; the newspapers, the lad gives them to her; the Friulian flag, the guardian gives it to him; the white shoes, the shoemaker gives them to her; the sword, the man gives it not to the lad; the books, we give them not to John; the black shoes, I give them to the sacristan; the newspaper, I give it not to the woman. 2-Translate to Friulian: the book, I want not to give it to her; the box, they want not to give it to him; the books, give (you) them to her; the boxes, give (thou) them to him; the books, give (you) them not to Mary; the boxes, give (thou) them not to John.

ANSWERS. 1-il permès, il predi jal da; i gjornâi, il fantat jai da; la bandiere furlane, il vuardean je da; lis scarpis blancjis, il cjaliâr jes da; la spade, l’om no je da al fantat; lis libris, no jai din a Zuan; lis scarpis neris, jes doi al muini; il gjornâl, no jal doi a la femine. 2-il libri, no vuei dâjal; la scjatule, no vuelin dâje; i libris, daitjai; lis scjatulis, dajes; i libris, no stait a dâjai a Marie; lis scjatulis, no sta dâjes a Zuan.

Lesson XXX.

Just as the indirect object pronouns mi, ti and i contract with the direct object pronouns lu, ju, le and lis (see lessons XXVIII and XXIX), so too do the indirect object pronouns nus (to us), us (to you) and ur (to them) contract with the same, to produce: (with lu) nus al, us al, ur al; (with ju) nus ai, us ai, ur ai; (with le) nus e, us e, ur e; (with lis) nus es, us es, ur es. Examples: i libris, us ai doi (the books, I give them to you); lis scarpis, nus es dan (the shoes, they give them to us). New vocabulary: menâ (to lead); regarding the formation of its affirmative imperative, the student may wish to review lesson XXVI.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: the permission, the priest gives it to us; the newspapers, the lad gives them to you; the Friulian flag, the guardian gives it to them; the white shoes, the shoemaker gives them to us; the sword, the man gives it not to you; the books, we give them not to them; the black shoes, I give them to the sacristans; the newspaper, I give it not to the women. 2-Translate to Friulian: the book, I want to give it to the lads; the lads, lead (thou) them to me; the women, lead (you) them to us; the lad, lead (you) him to them; the lad, let us lead him to them.

ANSWERS. 1-il permès, il predi nus al da; i gjornâi, il fantat us ai da; la bandiere furlane, il vuardean ur e da; lis scarpis blancjis, il cjaliâr nus es da; la spade, l’om no us e da; i libris, no ur ai din; lis scarpis neris, ur es doi ai muinis; il gjornâl, no ur al doi a lis feminis. 2-il libri, o vuei dâural ai fantats; i fantats, menimai; lis feminis, menaitnuses; il fantat, menaitjural; il fantat, menìnjural.

Lesson XXXI.

It was at lesson X that the student learnt the present indicative of (to have), and he ought to review it there, if necessary; this conjugation is used in conjunction with a past participle to form the recent past of Friulian (il passât prossim). Consider examples to discern patterns: (i) fevelâ (to speak), fevelât (past participle spoken), o ài fevelât (I have spoken, I spoke); (ii) considerâ (to consider), considerât (past participle considered), al à considerât (he has considered, he considered); (iii) copâ (to kill), copât (past participle killed), o vin copât (we have killed, we killed); (iv) finî (to finish), finît (past participle finished), a àn finît (they have finished, they finished); (v) capî (to understand), capît (past participle understood), e à capît (she has understood, she understood); (vi) plasê (to please), plasût (past participle pleased), o vês plasût (you have pleased, you pleased); (vii) tasê (to keep quiet), tasût (past participle kept quiet), tu âs tasût (thou hast kept quiet, thou keptest quiet); (viii) viodi (to see), viodût (past participle seen), no ài viodût (I have not seen, I saw not); (ix) crodi (to believe), crodût (past participle believed), aial crodût? (has he believed?, did he believe?). New vocabulary: nuie (nothing).

EXERCISES. 1-Provide the past participle of the following: scoltâ (to listen); lavorâ (to work); studiâ (to study); (to give); domandâ (to ask); comprâ (to buy); intuî (to intuit); furnî (to furnish); rapî (to kidnap); savê (to know); volê (to want); temê (to fear); (to have); bati (to beat); meti (to put); decidi (to decide). 2-Translate to Friulian: I bought a book; have you seen that man?; they have not understood; I have wanted to come; he spoke to me in Italian; I gave the book to them; the book, I gave it to the lad; what hast thou decided to do?; we have studied Friulian. 3-Provide the past participles of the following; the student will have to look to the answers for the correct form, as they do not follow the pattern of others: vignî (to come); sintî (to hear); cjoli (to take); jessi (to be), (to do). 4-Translate to Friulian: why hast thou taken the book?; I have heard nothing; I have understood nothing; why hast thou done nothing?; we have bought nothing.

ANSWERS. 1-scoltât (listened); lavorât (worked); studiât (studied); dât (given); domandât (asked); comprât (bought); intuît (intuited); furnît (furnished); rapît (kidnapped); savût (known); volût (wanted); temût (feared); vût (had); batût (beaten); metût (put); decidût (decided). 2-o ài comprât un libri; vêso viodût chel om?; no àn capît; o ài volût vignî; mi à fevelât par talian; ur ài dât il libri; il libri, jal ài dât al fantat; ce âstu decidût di fâ?; o vin studiât il furlan. 3-vignût (come); sintût (heard); cjolt (taken); stât (been); fat (done). 4-parcè âstu cjolt il libri?; no ài sintût nuie; no ài capît nuie; parcè no âstu fat nuie?; no vin comprât nuie.

Lesson XXXII.

Viodût (seen), which the student encountered in the previous lesson, is the past participle of viodi (to see). Take now these four examples: chest om che tu âs viodût (this man whom thou hast seen); chescj oms che tu âs viodûts (these men whom thou hast seen); cheste femine che tu âs viodude (this woman whom thou hast seen); chestis feminis che tu âs viodudis (these women whom thou hast seen). In the foregoing examples, the past participle accords in number and gender with the direct object. So does it accord in these examples: o vin viodût chest om (we have seen this man); o vin viodûts chescj oms (we have seen these men); o vin viodude cheste femine (we have seen this woman); o vin viodudis chestis feminis (we have seen these women). And again so does it accord in these examples: chest om, lu ài viodût (this man, I have seen him); chescj oms, ju ài viodûts (these men, I have seen them); cheste femine, le ài viodude (this woman, I have seen her); chestis feminis, lis ài viodudis (these women, I have seen them). New vocabulary: grant (great, big); la lûs (light); la tentazion (temptation); la peraule (word); il batisim (baptism); fâ un pecjât (to commit a sin; literally, to make a sin); seont (according to); la istruzion (instruction); fâ une domande (to ask a question; literally, to make a question); la vuere (war); Diu (God). Of grant, the four forms are: grant (masculine singular); grancj (masculine plural); grande (feminine singular); grandis (feminine plural).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: we have seen a great light; the books, I have not taken them; that house, has he bought it?; the temptations which I have had; those men, he killed them by sword; why have you not given me the permission to do this work?; the words which I have studied; these boxes, hast thou given them to the woman?; the baptisms which the priests have done; that man, great things he has done for you; we have committed these sins; these works, I want to have them done and finished; according to the instructions which I have given thee; these great men have asked a question. 2-Translate to Friulian: that lad, how big he is!; those lads, how big they are!; the great battles of this great people; the Great War; how big is that lighthouse?; God is great.

ANSWERS. 1-o vin viodude une grande lûs; i libris, no ju ài cjolts; chê cjase, le aial comprade?; lis tentazions che o ài vudis; chei oms, ju à copâts cu la spade; parcè no mi âstu dât il permès di fâ cheste vore?; lis peraulis che o ài studiadis; chestis scjatulis, jes âstu dadis a la femine?; i batisims che i predis a àn fats; chel om, grandis robis al à fatis par vualtris; o vin fats chescj pecjâts; chestis voris, o vuei vêlis fatis e finidis; seont lis istruzions che ti ài dadis; chescj grancj oms a àn fate une domande. 2-chel fantat, ce grant che al è!; chei fantats, ce grancj che a son!; lis grandis bataiis di chest grant popul; la Grande Vuere; trop grant isal chel fâr?; Diu al è grant.

Lesson XXXIII.

Rather than the present indicative of vê, certain verbs employ that of jessi in the formation of the Friulian recent past. The present indicative conjugation of jessi was presented at lesson V, and the student ought to review it there, if necessary. Consider a number of examples: {male} o soi lât (I have gone, I went); {males or both genders} o sin lâts (we have gone, we went); {female} o soi lade (I have gone, I went); {females} o sin ladis (we have gone, we went); al è nassût (he was born); e je nassude (she was born); al è muart (he has died, he died); e je muarte (she has died, she died); {males or both genders} a son muarts (they have died, they died); {females} a son muartis (they have died, they died). It will be noted that, when the auxiliary is jessi rather than vê, the past participle accords for gender and number with its subject. The past participles in question here are lât (gone; from lâ, to go); nassût (born; from nassi, to be born); muart (dead; from murî, to die). Learn also: tornât (returned, gone back; from tornâ, to return, to go back).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: John’s father is dead; Mark’s mother has died; John’s brother died; the shoemaker’s sister died at home; the priest was born in Slovenia; those priests were born in Poland; those women were not born in Italy; the lads, what have they gone to do?; the lads have gone to study Friulian; those women, why have they gone to speak with the butcher?; I have returned to Friûl (male); why hast thou not returned to Friûl? (female); the priests have gone back to Europe; the women have gone back home. 2-Of the past participles lât, nassût, muart and tornât, provide the masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular and feminine plural forms.

ANSWERS. 1-il pari di Zuan al è muart; la mari di Marc e je muarte; il fradi di Zuan al è muart; la sûr dal cjaliâr e je muarte a cjase; il predi al è nassût in Slovenie; chei predis a son nassûts in Polonie; chês feminis no son nassudis in Italie; i fantats, ce sono lâts a fâ?; i fantats a son lâts a studiâ il furlan; chês feminis, parcè sono ladis a fevelâ cul becjâr?; o soi tornât in Friûl; parcè no sêstu tornade in Friûl?; i predis a son tornâts in Europe; lis feminis a son tornadis a cjase. 2-lât, lâts, lade, ladis; nassût, nassûts, nassude, nassudis; muart, muarts, muarte, muartis; tornât, tornâts, tornade, tornadis.

Lesson XXXIV.

The Friulian possessive adjective for my is expressed in four different ways, depending on the noun it modifies: gno (masculine singular); miei (masculine plural); (feminine singular); mês (feminine plural). Examples: il gno libri (my book); i miei libris (my books); la mê scarpe (my shoe); lis mês scarpis (my shoes). The possessive adjective is preceded by the definite article; both the possessive adjective and the definite article agree in gender and number with the noun. It will be noted that the definite article is not employed with the names of family members in the singular, but it reappears in the plural: gno pari (my father); gno fradi (my brother); gno barbe (my uncle); mê mari (my mother); mê sûr (my sister); mê agne (my aunt), but: i miei fradis (my brethren); i miei barbis (my uncles); lis mês sûrs (my sisters); lis mês agnis (my aunts). With the Friulian for husband and wife, the definite article is employed even in the singular: il gno om (my husband); la mê femine (my wife). Following are the remaining possessive adjectives, all in the order of masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular, feminine plural: to, tiei, tô, tôs (thy); so, siei, sô, sôs (his, her, its); nestri, nestris, nestre, nestris (our); vuestri, vuestris, vuestre, vuestris (your); lôr, lôr, lôr, lôr (their).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: my book; thy book; her book; our book; your book; their book. 2-Translate to Friulian: my books; thy books; her books; our books; your books; their books. 3-Translate to Friulian: my shoe; thy shoe; his shoe; our shoe; your shoe; their shoe. 4-Translate to Friulian: my shoes; thy shoes; his shoes; our shoes; your shoes; their shoes. 5-Translate to Friulian: my father; thy brother; her father; our brother; their father; my husband; thy brethren; their fathers. 6-Translate to Friulian: my mother; thy sister; his mother; our sister; their mother; my wife; thy sisters; their mothers. 7-Translate to Friulian: he has gone to speak with his aunt; has he gone to work with his uncle?; they have returned to Friûl to work with their uncles.

ANSWERS. 1-il gno libri; il to libri; il so libri; il nestri libri; il vuestri libri; il lôr libri. 2-i miei libris; i tiei libris; i siei libris; i nestris libris; i vuestris libris; i lôr libris. 3-la mê scarpe; la tô scarpe; la sô scarpe; la nestre scarpe; la vuestre scarpe; la lôr scarpe. 4-lis mês scarpis; lis tôs scarpis; lis sôs scarpis; lis nestris scarpis; lis vuestris scarpis; lis lôr scarpis. 5-gno pari; to fradi; so pari; nestri fradi; lôr pari; il gno om; i tiei fradis; i lôr paris. 6-mê mari; tô sûr; sô mari; nestre sûr; lôr mari; la mê femine; lis tôs sûrs; lis lôr maris. 7-al è lât a fevelâ cun sô agne; isal lât a lavorâ cun so barbe?; a son tornâts in Friûl a lavorâ cui lôr barbis.

Lesson XXXV.

Whereas the transitive lavâ means to wash {something}, the reflexive lavâsi means to wash oneself; the reflexive aspect of lavâsi is indicated by its si ending. Here now is the present indicative conjugation, first that of lavâ: o lavi (I wash; first-person singular); tu lavis (thou washest; second-person singular); al lave (he washes; masculine, third-person singular); e lave (she washes; feminine, third-person singular); o lavìn (we wash; first-person plural); o lavais (you wash; second-person plural); a lavin (they wash; third-person plural); and now that of lavâsi: mi lavi (I wash myself; first-person singular); tu ti lavis (thou washest thyself; second-person singular); si lave (he washes himself, she washes herself; third-person singular); si lavìn (we wash ourselves; first-person plural); si lavais (you wash yourselves; second-person plural); si lavin (they wash themeselves; third-person plural). From these conjugations, the student will note that the atonic pronouns are omitted in declarative, reflexive use (for instance, mi lavi, not o mi lavi), with exception to the second-person singular (tu ti lavis, not ti lavis); and that it is only in the first-person singular and second-person singular that a reflexive form other than si is employed, namely mi and ti. The negation of the above reflexive forms is as follows: no mi lavi; no tu ti lavis; no si lave; no si lavìn; no si lavais; no si lavin. In the recent past, personal reflexive forms take jessi for auxiliary (impersonal reflexive forms employ vê, but this is beyond the scope of this lesson*), for instance: mi soi lavât (I have washed myself; male); ti sêstu lavade? (hast thou washed thyself?; female); no si son lavâts (they have not washed themselves; males or both genders); si sin lavadis (we have washed ourselves; females). To speak of washing one’s own parts of the body, the reflexive is employed: lavâsi lis mans (to wash one’s hands); mi lavi lis mans (I wash my hands); si è lavât lis mans (he has washed his hands). New vocabulary: il paviment (floor); la machine (car); platâsi (to hide oneself); il madrac (snake). *One example thereof will nevertheless be given: si à fevelât di te (thou wast spoken of, one has spoken of thee).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I have washed the floor; has thou washed the floor?; he has not washed the car; when did you wash the car?; we washed the church floor. 2-Translate these imperatives to Friulian: wash thy hands; wash your hands; let us wash our hands. 3-Translate to Friulian, using masculine forms of verb: he has killed that man; he has killed himself; they have spoken to one another; I went to hide myself; a snake has hidden itself in the box. 4-Translate to Friulian, using feminine forms of verb: she went to hide herself; they went to hide themselves; I went to wash myself.

ANSWERS. 1-o ài lavât il paviment; âstu lavât il paviment?; nol à lavade la machine; cuant vêso lavade la machine?; o vin lavât il paviment de glesie. 2-laviti lis mans; lavaitsi lis mans; lavìnsi lis mans. 3-al à copât chel om; si è copât; si son fevelâts; o soi lât a platâmi; te scjatule si è platât un madrac. 4-e je lade a platâsi; a son ladis a platâsi; o soi lade a lavâmi.

Lesson XXXVI.

Of jessi (to be), the imperfect conjugation is: o jeri (I was); tu jeris (thou wast); al jere (he was); e jere (she was); o jerin (we were); o jeris (you were); a jerin (they were). Negated, these are: no jeri; no tu jeris; nol jere; no jere; no jerin; no jeris; no jerin. The interrogative forms are: jerio?; jeristu?; jerial?; jerie?; jerino?; jeriso?; jerino? Of (to have), the imperfect conjugation is: o vevi (I had); tu vevis (thou hadst); al veve (he had); e veve (she had); o vevin (we had); o vevis (you had); a vevin (they had). Negated, these are: no vevi; no tu vevis; nol veve; no veve; no vevin; no vevis; no vevin. The interrogative forms are: vevio?; vevistu?; vevial?; vevie?; vevino?; veviso?; vevino? The imperfect is employed to express ongoing past action. Some examples: o jeri strac (I was tired); al jere inrabiât (he was angry); îr o jerin avilîts (yesterday we were sad); o vevi un cjan (I had a dog, I used to have a dog); al veve un gjat (he had a cat, he used to have a cat); e veve di fâlu (she had to do it); o vevin pôre (we were afraid [we had fear]); a vevin fan (they were hungry [they had hunger]); no tu vevis sêt (thou wast not thirsty [thou hadst not thirst]). Friulian expresses to be afraid, to be hungry and to be thirsty literally as to have fear (vê pôre), to have hunger (vê fan) and to have thirst (vê sêt). Pôre (fear) is a feminine noun; fan (hunger) and sêt (thirst) are both masculine. In conjunction with a past participle, the imperfect of and jessi as auxiliaries are employed to form the Friulian equivalent of the past perfect: o vevi fevelât (I had spoken); al veve durmît (he had slept); al jere stât (he had been); e jere stade (she had been); o vevin viodût (we had seen).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: she was tired; she was not tired; was she tired?; was she not tired?; he was tired; he was not tired; was he tired?; was he not tired?; the men were tired; were the men tired?; the women were tired; were the women not tired? 2-Translate to Friulian, assuming female subjects: I was angry; wast thou not angry?; I was sad and afraid; they were tired and thirsty. 3-Translate to Friulian, assuming male subjects: when I was young I had a dog; when they were young they were always angry; yesterday I was sad but today I am angry. 4-Translate to Friulian: I bought the book that I had seen; they did not understand what we had said; I did not understand what had been done.

ANSWERS. 1-e jere strache; no jere strache; jerie strache?; no jerie strache?; al jere strac; nol jere strac; jerial strac?; no jerial strac?; i oms a jerin stracs; jerino stracs i oms?; lis feminis a jerin strachis; no jerino strachis lis feminis? 2-o jeri inrabiade; no jeristu inrabiade?; o jeri avilide e o vevi pôre; a jerin strachis e a vevin sêt. 3-cuant che o jeri zovin o vevi un cjan; cuant che a jerin zovins a jerin simpri inrabiâts; îr o jeri avilît ma vuê o soi inrabiât. 4-o ài comprât il libri che o vevi viodût; no àn capît ce che o vevin dit; no ài capît ce che al jere stât fat.

Lesson XXXVII.

This lesson continues study of the imperfect, the formation whereof follows predictable patterns. The student may study the following as models: (i) fevelâ (to speak): o fevelavi (I was speaking), tu fevelavis (thou wast speaking), al fevelave (he was speaking), e fevelave (she was speaking), o fevelavin (we were speaking), o fevelavis (you were speaking), a fevelavin (they were speaking); (ii) tasê (to keep quiet): o tasevi (I was keeping quiet), tu tasevis (thou wast keeping quiet), al taseve (he was keeping quiet), e taseve (she was keeping quiet), o tasevin (we were keeping quiet), o tasevis (you were keeping quiet), a tasevin (they were keeping quiet); (iii) crodi (to believe): o crodevi (I was believing), tu crodevis (thou wast believing), al crodeve (he was believing), e crodeve (she was believing), o crodevin (we were believing), o crodevis (you were believing), a crodevin (they were believing); (iv) capî (to understand): o capivi (I was understanding), tu capivis (thou wast understanding), al capive (he was understanding), e capive (she was understanding), o capivin (we were understanding), o capivis (you were understanding), a capivin (they were understanding). For simplicity, the imperfect is translated above as I was believing, thou wast believing, and so on, but this tense also expresses the equivalent of I used to believe, I would {habitually in the past} believe, and other formulations indicating ongoing past action. New vocabulary: il bosc (forest); preâ (to pray); durmî (to sleep); mangjâ (to eat); intant che (whilst); ogni dì (every day).

EXERCISES. 1-I was walking in the forest; thou wast eating in the forest; they used to always speak to me in Friulian; I did not know what to do; they were praying in the church; they were keeping quiet because they were afraid; the thing that I wanted to say is this; he was putting the books into the box; those lads did not want to go to sleep; you were eating because you were hungry; whilst thou wast sleeping; whilst thou wast washing thyself; whilst he used to work; he would pray every day because he was devout; they did not use to work every day. 2-Translate to Friulian: I have seen-I was seeing; they have spoken-they were speaking; she has made-she was making; we have not made-we were not making; thou hast not taken-thou wast not taking; I have known-I used to know; he has been-he used to be; she has been-she used to be; I have had-I used to have.

ANSWERS. 1-o cjaminavi tal bosc; tu mangjavis tal bosc; mi fevelavin simpri par furlan; no savevi ce fâ; a preavin te glesie; a tasevin parcè che a vevin pôre; la robe che o volevi dî e je cheste; al meteve i libris te scjatule; chei fantats no volevin lâ a durmî; o mangjavis parcè che o vevis fan; intant che tu durmivis; intant che tu ti lavavis; intant che al lavorave; al preave ogni dì parcè che al jere devot; no lavoravin ogni dì. 2-o ài viodût-o viodevi; a àn fevelât-a fevelavin; e à fat-e faseve; no vin fat-no fasevin; no tu âs cjolt-no tu cjolevis; o ài savût-o savevi; al è stât-al jere; e je stade-e jere; o ài vût-o vevi.

Lesson XXXVIII.

It was in lesson IX that the student learnt to count from nought to ten, and he ought to review there, if necessary. He will now learn to count beyond: undis (11); dodis (12); tredis (13); cutuardis (14); cuindis (15); sedis (16); disesiet (17); disevot (18); disenûf (19); vincj (20); vincjeun (21); vincjedoi (22); vincjetrê (23); vincjecuatri (24); vincjecinc (25); vincjesîs (26); vincjesiet (27); vincjevot (28); vincjenûf (29); trente (30); cuarante (40); cincuante (50); sessante (60); setante (70); otante (80); novante (90); cent (100); dusinte (200); tresinte (300); cuatricent (400); cinccent (500); sîscent (600); sietcent (700); votcent (800); nûfcent (900); mil (1.000); cent mil (100.000); un milion (1.000.000); un miliart (1.000.000.000). Just as un (1) and doi (2) take the feminine forms une and dôs, so too does any numeral ending therewith, for instance: trenteun (31) and trentedoi (32) take the feminine forms trenteune and trentedôs. Milion and miliart take the plural forms milions and miliarts.

EXERCISES. 1-Say in Friulian: 35; 47; 58; 61; 73; 82; 94; 106; 244; 351; 877; 962; 1.001; 1.200; 2.222; 3.456; 4.989; 5.588; 10.001; 17.400; 18.548; 50.300; 70.345; 120.000; 199.999; 255.555; 1.000.100; 2.000.000; 999.999.999; 8.000.000.000.

ANSWERS. 1-trentecinc (35); cuarantesiet (47); cincuantevot (58); sessanteun (61); setantetrê (73); otantedoi (82); novantecuatri (94); cent e sîs (106); dusinte e cuarantecuatri (244); tresinte e cincuanteun (351); votcent e setantesiet (877); nûfcent e sessantedoi (962); mil e un (1.001); mil e dusinte (1.200); doi mil dusinte e vincjedoi (2.222); trê mil cuatricent e cincuantesîs (3.456); cuatri mil nûfcent e otantenûf (4.989); cinc mil cinccent e otantevot (5.588); dîs mil e un (10.001); disesiet mil e cuatricent (17.400); disevot mil cinccent e cuarantevot (18.548); cincuante mil e tresinte (50.300); setante mil tresinte e cuarantecinc (70.345); cent e vincj mil (120.000); cent e novantenûf mil nûfcent e novantenûf (199.999); dusinte e cincuantecinc mil cinccent e cincuantecinc (255.555); un milion e cent (1.000.100); doi milions (2.000.000); nûfcent e novantenûf milions e nûfcent e novantenûf mil nûfcent e novantenûf (999.999.999); vot miliarts (8.000.000.000).

Lesson XXXIX.

Indi is the Friulian for thereof (of it, of them) and is customarily found in some contracted form. When followed by a word beginning with a vowel, it can take the form ind, for instance: ind àn fevelât (they have spoken thereof); when followed by a word beginning with a consonant, it can take the form int, for instance: l’om int mangjà (the man ate thereof); when preceded by a word ending in a vowel, it can take the form ’nd or ’nt, for instance: no ’nd ài fevelât (I have not spoken thereof); no ’nt fevelin cun me (they speak not thereof with me); si ’nd à viodûts doi (two of them have been seen). When suffixed to an infinitive, it can contract to nt, for instance: mangjânt (to eat thereof); fevelânt (to speak thereof); fânt (to make thereof); dânt (to give thereof); vênt (to have thereof); savênt (to know thereof). Ind è is read there is, there are; the negated no ’nd è is read there is not, there are not. New vocabulary: nissun (none, not any, not one); vonde (enough); cjatâ (to find); altri (other); za (already); une vore (much, many); dopo (afterwards); la aghe (water). The different forms of the adjective altri are: altri (masculine singular); altris (masculine plural); altre (feminine singular); altris (feminine plural).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: my brother has seven of them; my father has not any of them; I want five of them; I have enough of them; I have found ten others of them; he who has not thereof; that man has eaten of it; I want not to speak of it; I have already eaten much of it. 2-Translate to Friulian: there are many; there are other things that he has done; there is none like him; there are no others; there were others afterwards; there is no water.

ANSWERS. 1-gno fradi ind à siet; gno pari no ’nd à nissun; int vuei cinc; ind ài vonde; ind ài cjatâts altris dîs; chel che no ’nd à; chel om ind à mangjât; no vuei fevelânt; ind ài za mangjât une vore. 2-ind è une vore; ind è altris robis che al à fatis; no ’nd è nissun come lui; no ’nd è altris; ind è stâts altris dopo; no ’nd è aghe.

Lesson XL.

The student has encountered a number of Friulian expressions employing (to have) + noun, where English has rather to be + adjective, namely: vê sêt (to be thirsty); vê fan (to be hungry); vê pôre (to be afraid); here now are a few others to be learnt: vê frêt (to be cold); vê cjalt (to be hot); vê sium (to be sleepy). Consider the following: o ài sium (I am sleepy); no ài sium (I am not sleepy); no ài plui sium (I am sleepy no more). The English no more takes the form no… plui in Friulian, with no placed before the verb and plui thereafter. Other constructions of the sort include: no… altri (no other, nothing else); no… nuie (nothing); no… nissun (no, none); no… ni… ni… (neither… nor); no… mai (never). Examples: no disin nuie (they say nothing); no âstu nissune pôre? (hast thou no fear)?; gno pari nol è plui (my father is no more, which is to say, my father is dead). New vocabulary: il timp (time); il fi (son); la fie (daughter); il re (king); la regjine (queen); podê (can, to be able). So does podê conjugate in the present indicative: o pues (I can); tu puedis (thou canst); al pues (he can); e pues (she can); o podìn (we can); o podês (you can); a puedin (they can). Negated, these are: no pues (I cannot); no tu puedis (thou canst not); nol pues or nol pò (he cannot); no pues or no pò (she cannot); no podìn (we cannot); no podês (you cannot); no puedin (they cannot).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I am cold no more; I have seen him no more; he has nothing anymore; they have no more time; I have nothing else to say; there is no other book in the box; she has seen nothing; we are neither hungry nor cold nor sleepy; hast thou no other son?; they have no other daughter; the king is no more; the queen is no more; I am neither cold nor hot; none of them has understood; none of you is to eat these fruits; they have never seen him; no man has ever spoken so; they are never sleepy; that man has never washed himself. 2-Translate to Friulian: he can do nothing else; they can see one another no more; these men can say nothing more.

ANSWERS. 1-no ài plui frêt; no lu ài plui viodût; nol à plui nuie; no àn plui timp; no ài altri ce dî; no ’nd è altri libri te scjatule; no à viodût nuie; no vin ni fan ni frêt ni sium; no âstu nissun altri fi?; no àn nissune altre fie; il re nol è plui; la regjine no je plui; no ài ni frêt ni cjalt; nissun di lôr nol à capît; nissun di vualtris nol à di mangjâ chestis pomis; no lu àn mai viodût; nissun om nol à mai fevelât cussì; no àn mai sium; chel om no si è mai lavât. 2-nol pò fâ nuie altri; no puedin viodisi plui; chescj oms no puedin dî plui nuie.

Lesson XLI.

Of jessi (to be), the simple future conjugates so: o sarai (I shall be); tu sarâs (thou wilt be); al sarà (he will be); e sarà (she will be); o sarìn (we shall be); o sarês (you will be); a saran (they will be). Now of (to have), the same: o varai (I shall have); tu varâs (thou wilt have); al varà (he will have); e varà (she will have); o varìn (we shall have); o varês (you will have); a varan (they will have). Examples: al varà di lavâsi (he will have to wash himself); a saran là jù (they will be down there); cuant che tu sarâs vieli (when thou wilt be old). Of vieli, the four forms are: vieli (masculine singular); viei (masculine plural); viele (feminine singular); vielis (feminine plural). Now, as to the Friulian equivalent of the future perfect, it is formed by way of the addition of a past participle: a saran lâts vie (they will have left); a varan za mangjât (they will have already eaten); cuant che al varà fate la sô part (when he will have done his part). The student may study the following as models of the simple future: (i) fevelâ (to speak): o fevelarai (I shall speak), tu fevelarâs (thou wilt speak), al fevelarà (he will speak), fevelarà (she will speak), fevelarìn (we shall speak), fevelarês (you will speak), fevelaran (they will speak); (ii) tasê (to keep quiet): o tasarai (I shall keep quiet), tu tasarâs (thou wilt keep quiet), al tasarà (he will keep quiet), e tasarà (she will keep quiet), o tasarìn (we shall keep quiet), o tasarês (you will keep quiet), a tasaran (they will keep quiet); (iii) crodi (to believe): o crodarai (I shall believe), tu crodarâs (thou wilt believe), al crodarà (he will believe), crodarà (she will believe), crodarìn (we shall believe), crodarês (you will believe), crodaran (they will believe); (iv) capî (to understand): o capirai (I shall understand), tu capirâs (thou wilt understand), al capirà (he will understand), e capirà (she will understand), o capirìn (we shall understand), o capirês (you will understand), a capiran (they will understand). Capî can take an alternative conjugation in the simple future: o capissarai; tu capissarâs; al capissarà; e capissarà; o capissarìn; o capissarês; a capissaran.

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I shall kill; thou wilt ask; he will wash; he will not wash; she will wash; she will not wash; we shall not kill; you will wash yourselves; they will not hide themselves. 2-Translate to Friulian: I shall take; thou wilt not take; he will leave; she will not leave; they will finish; we shall want; you will beat; I shall not put. 3-Translate to Friulian: I shall have put; thou wilt have done; he will not have taken; she will not have spoken; it will have been done; we shall not have understood; you will have had; these words will not have been said. 4-Translate to Friulian: when he will be old; when she will be old; when these men will be old; when these women will be old. 5-Provide the interrogative forms of jessi and in the simple future. 6-Translate to Friulian: will he not have done the work?; these men, shall we not have seen them?; these books, will they not have already been put into the boxes?

ANSWERS. 1-o coparai; tu domandarâs; al lavarà; nol lavarà; e lavarà; no lavarà; no coparìn; si lavarês; no si plataran. 2-o cjolarai; no tu cjolarâs; al larà vie; no larà vie; a finiran; o volarìn; o batarês; no metarai. 3-o varai metût; tu varâs fat; nol varà cjolt; no varà fevelât; al sarà stât fat; no varìn capît; o varês vût; chestis peraulis no saran stadis ditis. 4-cuant che al sarà vieli; cuant che e sarà viele; chescj oms cuant che a saran viei; chestis feminis cuant che a saran vielis. 5-(jessi) saraio?; sarâstu?; saraial?; saraie?; sarìno?; sarêso?; sarano?; (vê) varaio?; varâstu?; varaial?; varaie?; varìno?; varêso?; varano? 6-no varaial fate la vore?; chescj oms no ju varìno viodûts?; chescj libris no sarano za stâts metûts tes scjatulis?

Lesson XLII.

This lesson will provide the student with more opportunities to review and practise the Friulian interrogative. Consider the following examples, all first-person singular: o feveli – fevelio? (I speak – do I speak?); o fevelavi – fevelavio? (I was speaking – was I speaking?); o ài fevelât – àio fevelât? (I have spoken – have I spoken?); o fevelarai – fevelaraio? (I shall speak – shall I speak?); o varai fevelât – varaio fevelât? (I shall have spoken – shall I have spoken?). From the foregoing examples, it is seen that the atonic pronoun shifts to the end of either the verb (fevelio, fevelavio…) or the auxiliary (àio, varaio…) to form the interrogative. The Friulian interrogative is also employed with interrogative words: cuant fevelarâstu? (when wilt thou speak?); parcè laraial vie? (why will he leave?); cui coparaial il purcit? (who will kill the pig?); dulà mangjavino il pan? (where were they eating the bread?); cemût faseviso la vore? (how were you doing the work?); ce volêso vê? (what will you have?, what do you want to have?); di cui ise cheste clâf? (whose key is this? [of whom is this key?]); cuâl libri âstu let? (which book hast thou read?). Let is the past participle of the verb lei (to read). Cuâl takes four forms: cuâl (masculine singular); cuâi (masculine plural); cuale (feminine singular); cualis (feminine plural). New vocabulary: vignî (to come); so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o ven (I come); tu vegnis (thou comest); al ven (he comes); e ven (she comes); o vignìn (we come); o vignîs (you come); a vegnin (they come).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: which shoes does he like?; what can I do for thee?; how can he be his son?; where art thou?; from where must I buy it?; who is coming with me?; why come you now?; why does she come with thee? 2-Translate to Friulian: how wast thou able to do it?; why has he come with them?; which star hast thou seen?; why has he left? 3-Translate to Friulian: of whom was he speaking?; who was doing these things?; who was seeing to this situation?; why wast thou not seeing to the house?; why was she putting the books into the boxes?; whose keys were those? 4-Translate to Friulian: which books wilt thou read?; of whom will she have fear?; from where will they take the water?; who will come with me?; why shall we not have to do it? 5-Translate to Friulian: what will they have wanted?; when shall we have finished?; why shall I not have been able to work with them?; when will you have read the book?

ANSWERS. 1-cualis scarpis i plasino?; ce puedio fâ par te?; cemût puedial jessi so fi?; dulà sêstu?; di dulà àio di comprâlu?; cui vegnial cun me?; parcè vignîso cumò?; parcè vegnie cun te? 2-cemût âstu podût fâlu?; parcè isal vignût cun lôr?; cuale stele âstu viodude?; parcè isal lât vie? 3-di cui fevelavial?; cui fasevial chestis robis?; cui viodevial di cheste situazion?; parcè no viodevistu de cjase?; parcè metevie i libris tes scjatulis?; di cui jerino chês clâfs? 4-cuâi libris leiarâstu?; di cui varaie pôre?; di dulà cjolarano la aghe?; cui vignaraial cun me?; parcè no varìno di fâlu? 5-ce varano volût?; cuant varìno finît?; parcè no varaio podût lavorâ cun lôr?; cuant varêso let il libri?

Lesson XLIII.

Of jessi (to be), the present conditional conjugates so: o sarès (I should be); tu saressis (thou wouldest be); al sarès (he would be); e sarès (she would be); o saressin (we should be); o saressis (you would be); a saressin (they would be). Of (to have), the same is: o varès (I should have); tu varessis (thou wouldest have); al varès (he would have); e varès (she would have); o varessin (we should have); o varessis (you would have); a varessin (they would have). Examples: al sarès ridicul (it would be ridiculous); a varessin fan (they would be hungry [they would have hunger]); o varès di fâlu (I ought to do it). Now, as to the Friulian equivalent of the conditional perfect, it is formed by way of the addition of a past participle: tu varessis fevelât (thou wouldest have spoken); e sarès stade contente (she would have been happy); a varessin vût di vignî (they ought to have come). The following may be studied as models of the present conditional: (i) fevelâ (to speak): o fevelarès (I should speak), tu fevelaressis (thou wouldest speak), al fevelarès (he would speak), e fevelarès (she would speak), o fevelaressin (we should speak), o fevelaressis (you would speak), a fevelaressin (they would speak); (ii) tasê (to keep quiet): o tasarès (I should keep quiet), tu tasaressis (thou wouldest keep quiet), al tasarès (he would keep quiet), e tasarès (she would keep quiet), o tasaressin (we should keep quiet), o tasaressis (you would keep quiet), a tasaressin (they would keep quiet); (iii) crodi (to believe): o crodarès (I should believe), tu crodaressis (thou wouldest believe), al crodarès (he would believe), e crodarès (she would believe), o crodaressin (we should believe), o crodaressis (you would believe), a crodaressin (they would believe); (iv) capî (to understand): o capirès (I should understand), tu capiressis (thou wouldest understand), al capirès (he would understand), e capirès (she would understand), o capiressin (we should understand), o capiressis (you would understand), a capiressin (they would understand). Capî can take an alternative conjugation in the present conditional: o capissarès; tu capissaressis; al capissarès; e capissarès; o capissaressin; o capissaressis; a capissaressin.

EXERCISES. 1-Provide the interrogative forms of jessi in the present conditional. 2-Provide the interrogative forms of in the present conditional. 3-Provide the interrogative forms of fevelâ in the present conditional. 4-Translate to Friulian: those men would be happy; he would be sad; she would be angry; wouldest thou not have been tired?; they would be hungry; thou wouldest be afraid; he would be sleepy. 5-Translate to Friulian: he ought to study; he ought to have studied; I ought to be; I ought to have been; they ought to have it; they ought to have had it.

ANSWERS. 1-saressio?; saressistu?; saressial?; saressie?; saressino?; saressiso?; saressino? 2-varessio?; varessistu?; varessial?; varessie?; varessino?; varessiso?; varessino? 3-fevelaressio?; fevelaressistu?; fevelaressial?; fevelaressie?; fevelaressino?; fevelaressiso?; fevelaressino? 4-chei oms a saressin contents; al sarès avilît; e sarès inrabiade; no saressistu stât strac? (no saressistu stade strache?); a varessin fan; tu varessis pôre; al varès sium. 5-al varès di studiâ; al varès vût di studiâ; o varès di jessi (o varès di sei); o varès di jessi stât (o varès di sei stât); a varessin di vêlu; a varessin di vêlu vût.

Lesson XLIV.

In colloquial Friulian, the recent past is employed to express such utterances as: I did or I have done; he said or he has said; we saw or we have seen; they came or they have come, and so on. Examples: o ài viodût chel om (I saw that man, I have seen that man); o vin fate la vore (we did the work, we have done the work); i libris ju àn metûts tes scjatulis (they put the books into the boxes, they have put the books into the boxes); al è lât vie (he left, he has left); la femine e à dit (the woman said, the woman has said). Now there exists another tense in Friulian, primarily encountered in good writing, such as in the narrative portions of the Friulian version of the Bible, employed to express the past tense. This is the simple past, and it is customarily avoided in speech, but it would be well for the student to come to recognise it. It must be noted that this simple past tense never expresses the equivalent of he has said, we have seen, they have put, and so on, but rather he said, we saw, they put. Consider: al à dit (he said, he has said); al disè (he said). Another example: al à fevelât (he spoke, he has spoken); al fevelà (he spoke). So does jessi (to be) conjugate in the simple past: o foi (I was); tu foris (thou wast); al fo (he was); e fo (she was); o forin (we were); o foris (you were); a forin (they were). So does (to have) conjugate in the same: o vei (I had); tu veris (thou hadst); al vè (he had); e vè (she had); o verin (we had); o veris (you had); a verin (they had). The following may be studied as models: (i) fevelâ (to speak): o fevelai (I spoke), tu fevelaris (thou spokest), al fevelà (he spoke), e fevelà (she spoke), o fevelarin (we spoke), o fevelaris (you spoke), a fevelarin (they spoke); (ii) tasê (to keep quiet): o tasei (I kept quiet), tu taseris (thou keptest quiet), al tasè (he kept quiet), e tasè (she kept quiet), o taserin (we kept quiet), o taseris (you kept quiet), a taserin (they kept quiet); (iii) crodi (to believe): o crodei (I believed), tu croderis (thou believedest), al crodè (he believed), e crodè (she believed), o croderin (we believed), o croderis (you believed), a croderin (they believed); (iv) capî (to understand): o capii (I understood), tu capiris (thou understoodest), al capì (he understood), e capì (she understood), o capirin (we understood), o capiris (you understood), a capirin (they understood). The student would also be wise to familiarise himself with the simple past of (to say), the use whereof is of high frequency in the Bible: o disei (I said); tu diseris (thou saidest); al disè (he said); e disè (she said); o diserin (we said); o diseris (you said); a diserin (they said).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian, as though in colloquial conversation: I saw him; they prayed with me; he killed the pig; I read the book; thou understoodest what I said; he did not come with them; she did not wash herself; I decided to read the book; didst thou decide to do the work?; did they give you the permission to speak?; he took the book; he was killed; the work was done by the priest. 2-Translate to Friulian, as though in the narration of the Bible: Jesus said; Jesus did; Moses took; Moses spoke; they said to him; they said to them; they killed twenty-five thousand men; he was killed; the work was done by Moses; he understood all that God had said to him.

ANSWERS. 1-lu ài viodût; a àn preât cun me; al à copât il purcit; o ài let il libri; tu âs capît ce che o ài dit; nol è vignût cun lôr; no si è lavade; o ài decidût di lei il libri; âstu decidût di fâ la vore?; us àno dât il permès di fevelâ?; al à cjolt il libri; al è stât copât; la vore e je stade fate dal predi. 2-Jesù al disè; Jesù al fasè; Mosè al cjolè; Mosè al fevelà; i diserin; ur diserin; a coparin vincjecinc mil oms; al fo copât; la vore e fo fate di Mosè; al capì dut ce che Diu i veve dit.

Lesson XLV.

The subjunctive is employed to express wishes, doubts, conjectures, necessities, possibilities. For instance, the Friulian for it is so is al è cussì, but consider now the following: no vuei che al sedi cussì (I want not that it be so); no crodin che al sedi cussì (they believe not that it be so); bisugne che al sedi cussì (it need be so); par che al sedi cussì (that it may be so). Of jessi (to be), the present subjunctive conjugates so: che o sedi (that I may be); che tu sedis (that thou may be); che al sedi (that he may be); che e sedi (that she may be); che o sedin (that we may be); che o sedis (that you may be); che a sedin (that they may be). Of (to have), the present subjunctive conjugates so: che o vedi (that I may have); che tu vedis (that thou may have); che al vedi (that he may have); che e vedi (that she may have); che o vedin (that we may have); che o vedis (that you may have); che a vedin (that they may have). New vocabulary: pensâ (to think); pò stâi che (it may be that); sigûr (safe, sure). For information, the present indicative of crodi (to believe) conjugates so: o crôt (I believe); tu crodis (thou believest); al crôt (he believes); e crôt (she believes); o crodìn (we believe); o crodês (you believe); a crodin (they believe).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I want him to be content; we believe that he has left; in order that he be with you for ever; it is fundamental that it should be her who does it; let there be light; I shall give it to him that he may be safe; he wants this work to be done; I want it to be John who does this work that it may be done well. 2-Translate to Friulian: I want not that they should be hungry; give me this water that I may be thirsty no more; it may be that the lads have done it; he said it to me lest I be afraid; let me not have to remain like that; why think you that they have not already done it?; they cannot believe that he may be afraid; I believe that they have taken them.

ANSWERS. 1-o vuei che al sedi content; o crodìn che al sedi lât vie; par che al sedi cun vualtris par simpri; al è fondamentâl che e sedi jê a fâlu; che e sedi la lûs; jal darai par che al sedi sigûr; al vûl che e sedi fate cheste vore; o vuei che al sedi Zuan a fâ cheste vore par che e sedi ben fate. 2-no vuei che a vedin fan; dàmi cheste aghe par che no vedi plui sêt; pò stâi che i fantats lu vedin fat; mal à dit par che jo no vedi pôre; che jo no vedi di restâ cussì; parcè pensaiso che no lu vedin za fat?; no puedin crodi che al vedi pôre; o crôt che ju vedin cjolts.

Lesson XLVI.

This lesson continues study of the present subjunctive. The following ought to be studied as models: (i) fevelâ (to speak): che o feveli (that I may speak), che tu fevelis (that thou may speak), che al feveli (that he may speak), che e feveli (that she may speak), che o fevelìn (that we may speak), che o fevelais (that you may speak), che a fevelin (that they may speak); (ii) tasê (to keep quiet): che o tasi (that I may keep quiet), che tu tasis (that thou may keep quiet), che al tasi (that he may keep quiet), che e tasi (that she may keep quiet), che o tasìn (that we may keep quiet), che o tasês (that you may keep quiet), che a tasin (that they may keep quiet); (iii) crodi (to believe): che o crodi (that I may believe), che tu crodis (that thou may believe), che al crodi (that he may believe), che e crodi (that she may believe), che o crodìn (that we may believe), che o crodês (that you may believe), che a crodin (that they may believe); (iv) capî (to understand): che o capissi (that I may understand), che tu capissis (that thou may understand), che al capissi (that he may understand), che e capissi (that she may understand), che o capìn (that we may understand), che o capîs (that you may understand), che a capissin (that they may understand). In the matter of the present subjunctive, an alternative conjugation is always possible: (i) fevelâ: che o feveledi, che tu feveledis, che al feveledi, che e feveledi, che o feveledin, che o feveledis, che a feveledin; (ii) tasê: che o tasedi, che tu tasedis, che al tasedi, che e tasedi, che o tasedin, che o tasedis, che a tasedin; (iii) crodi: che o crodedi, che tu crodedis, che al crodedi, che e crodedi, che o crodedin, che a crodedis, che a crodedin; (iv) capî: che o capedi, che tu capedis, che al capedi, che e capedi, che o capedin, che o capedis, che a capedin. Even jessi and vê, presented at the last lesson, have an alternative: (i) jessi: che o sei, che tu seis, che al sei, che e sei, che o sein, che o sês, che a sein; (ii) vê: che o vebi, che tu vebis, che al vebi, che e vebi, che o vebin, che o vebis, che a vebin. New vocabulary: la pazience (patience); sperâ (to hope); il soreli (sun); pussibil (possible); almancul (at least).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I want these books to be put into the boxes; I want not that my father and my mother be afraid; it is needed that thou have patience; is it possible that there not be at least ten of them? 2-Translate to Friulian: it is needed that thou find thy brother; it is needed that he put the books into the boxes; I hope that thou come with me; we hope that it will be sunny tomorrow; I shall give thee this book that thou be able to study Friulian; I want not that they die. 3-Translate to Friulian: let them come with thee; let him study Friulian; let it be done so.

ANSWERS. 1-chescj libris o vuei che a sedin (sein) metûts tes scjatulis; no vuei che gno pari e mê mari a vedin (vebin) pôre; bisugne che tu vedis (vebis) pazience; pussibil che no ’nt sedi (sei) almancul dîs? 2-bisugne che tu cjatis (cjatedis) to fradi; bisugne che al meti (metedi) i libris tes scjatulis; o speri che tu vegnis (vignedis) cun me; o sperìn che doman al sedi (sei) soreli; ti darai chest libri par che tu puedis (podedis) studiâ il furlan; no vuei che a muerin (muredin). 3-che a vegnin (vignedin) cun te; che al studii (studiedi) il furlan; che al sedi (sei) fat cussì.

Lesson XLVII.

Consider now the difference between these utterances: mi pâr dal impussibil che al sedi cussì (it seems impossible to me that it may be so); mi pareve dal impussibil che al fos cussì (it seemed impossible to me that it might be so). The present subjunctive is employed in the first example (che al sedi);  the second takes rather the imperfect subjunctive (che al fos), for we are dealing with past time. Of jessi (to be), the imperfect subjunctive conjugates so: che o fos (that I might be); che tu fossis (that thou might be); che al fos (that he might be); che e fos (that she might be); che o fossin (that we might be); che o fossis (that you might be); che a fossin (that they might be). Of (to have), the imperfect subjunctive conjugates so: che o ves (that I might have); che tu vessis (that thou might have); che al ves (that he might have); che e ves (that she might have); che o vessin (that we might have); che o vessis (that you might have); che a vessin (that they might have). Of parê, it would also be well for the student to learn the following forms: al pâr (it seems); al pareve (it was seeming, it seemed); al parè (it seemed); al pararà (it will seem); al pararès (it would seem); the past participle is parût. New vocabulary: prin che (before; takes the subjunctive and is also expressed as prime che); masse (too); tart (late); vê voie di (to feel like, to be keen, to want); domandâsi (to wonder; literally, to ask oneself); slâf (Slav).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: I have to see him before it is too late; I had to see him before it was too late; I shall tell thee nothing that thou may not fear; I told thee nothing that thou might not fear; he died before I was born; it seems to me that he is keen on doing it; it seemed to me that he was keen on doing it; I wonder what those things are; I wondered what those things were; for years it was thought that they were Slav peoples.

ANSWERS. 1-o ài di viodilu prin che al sedi masse tart; o vevi di viodilu prin che al fos masse tart; no ti disarai nuie par che no tu vedis pôre; no ti ài dit nuie par che no tu vessis pôre; al è muart prin che o fos nassût (nassude); mi pâr che al vedi voie di fâlu; mi pareve che al ves voie di fâlu; mi domandi ce che a sedin chês robis; mi domandavi ce che a fossin chês robis; par agns si à pensât che a fossin popui slâfs.

Lesson XLVIII.

In continuation of the imperfect subjunctive, the following may be studied as models: (i) fevelâ (to speak): che o fevelàs (that I might speak), che tu fevelassis (that thou might speak), che al fevelàs (that he might speak), che e fevelàs (that she might speak), che o fevelassin (that we might speak), che o fevelassis (that you might speak), che a fevelassin (that they might speak); (ii) tasê (to keep quiet): che o tasès (that I might keep quiet), che tu tasessis (that thou might keep quiet), che al tasès (that he might keep quiet), che e tasès (that she might keep quiet), che o tasessin (that we might keep quiet), che o tasessis (that you might keep quiet), che a tasessin (that they might keep quiet); (iii) crodi (to believe): che o crodès (that I might believe), che tu crodessis (that thou might believe), che al crodès (that he might believe), che e crodès (that she might believe), che o crodessin (that we might believe), che o crodessis (that you might believe), che a crodessin (that they might believe); (iv) capî (to understand): che o capìs (that I might understand), che tu capissis (that thou might understand), che al capìs (that he might understand), che e capìs (that she might understand), che o capissin (that we might understand), che o capissis (that you might understand), che a capissin (that they might understand). New vocabulary: fâ in mût che (to make it so that); cjapâ frêt (to get cold); il turist (tourist; plural, i turiscj); jentrâ (to enter).

EXERCISES. 1-Translate to Friulian: he gave me this book that I might read it; he spoke to them in English that they might understand what he was saying; he did not want the men to do the work like that; they made it so that I might not get cold; the guardian made it so that the tourists might not enter into the lighthouse; he made it so that nobody might come to know it; they were already dead before he returned.

ANSWERS. 1-mi à dât chest libri par che lu leiès; ur à fevelât par inglês par che a capissin ce che al diseve; nol voleve che i oms a fasessin cussì la vore; a àn fat in mût che jo no cjapàs frêt; il vuardean al à fat in mût che i turiscj no jentrassin tal fâr; al à fat in mût che nissun nol vignìs a savêlu; a jerin za muarts prime che al tornàs.

Lesson XLIX.

Of fâ, the gerund is fasint, which can be understood in English as meaning {in/by/whilst} doing. For example, al è lat cuintri di un comandament di Diu, fasint ce che nol leve means he went against a commandment of God, by doing that which was wrong. Study the formation of the following gerunds, that they may serve as models: fevelâ – fevelant (to speak – speaking); insegnâ – insegnant (to teach – teaching); tasê – tasint (to keep quiet – keeping quiet); podê – podint (to be able – being able); crodi – crodint (to believe – believing); meti – metint (to put – putting); capî – capint (to understand – understanding); finî – finint (to finish – finishing). Moreover, when a gerund is employed with stâ (to be, to stay, to dwell), the Friulian equivalent of the English continuous aspect is obtained: stâ fevelant (to be speaking); o stoi fevelant (I am speaking); al stave fevelant (he was speaking). In the present indicative, stâ conjugates so: o stoi (I am); tu stâs (thou art); al sta (he is); e sta (she is); o stin (we are); o stais (you are); a stan (they are). In the imperfect, stâ conjugates so: o stavi (I was); tu stavis (thou wast); al stave (he was); e stave (she was); o stavin (we were); o stavis (you were); a stavin (they were). For information, ce che nol leve in the example at the top of this lesson translates literally as that which was not going; that which ‘goes not’ in Friulian is wrong, ought not be done. Cuintri di from that same example is the Friulian for against. New vocabulary: la zornade (day); tant che (like, as); la âf (bee); biel che (just as); alc (something); gnûf (new); il vanzeli (gospel).

EXERCISES. 1-Provide the gerund of the following: spietâ (to wait for); passâ (to pass, to spend); tacâ (to start); rivâ (to arrive); (to go); (to give); temê (to fear); savê (to know); (to have); lei (to read); rispuindi (to respond); jessi (to be); vignî (to come); partî (to depart); (to say). 2-Translate to Friulian: starting from the 1960s; I would spend my days working like a bee; departing from Poland we arrived in Friûl; he entered the city by arriving from the forest; just as he was dying; by speaking to them of the situation; by giving us the permission to do it; they can understand this by reading the gospel of Mark; the men are waiting for something new; we were learning something new. 3-Of the adjective gnûf (new), provide the four different forms.

ANSWERS. 1-spietant; passant; tacant; rivant; lant; dant; temint; savint; vint; leint; rispuindint; jessint; vignint; partint; disint. 2-tacant dai agns 60 (sessante); o passavi lis mês zornadis lavorant tant che une âf; partint de Polonie o sin rivâts tal Friûl; al è rivât te citât rivant dal bosc; biel che al stave murint; fevelantjur de situazion; dantnus il permès di fâlu; chest a puedin capîlu leint il vanzeli di Marc; i oms a stan spietant alc di gnûf; o stavin imparant alc di gnûf. 3-gnûf (masculine singular); gnûfs (masculine plural); gnove (feminine singular); gnovis (feminine plural).

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BOOK SECOND
FRIULIAN IN HOLY SCRIPTURE

In this second book, sentences drawn from Holy Scripture are annotated with grammar and vocabulary notes, that the student may further his understanding of the Friulian language. To learn the basics of this language, the student ought to return to the first book.

Sentence I.

Tal imprin Diu al creà cîl e tiere. (Gjenesi 1,1) Imprin is a masculine noun meaning beginning. As for the beginning, the Friulian is l’imprin; for in the beginning, it is tal imprin. Tal is the contraction of the preposition in, meaning in, and il or l’, which are the masculine singular definite articles meaning the. Other examples of the sort: il poç, tal poç (the well, in the well); il mâr, tal mâr (the sea, in the sea); il spirt, tal spirt (the spirit, in the spirit); l’arbûl, tal arbûl (the tree, in the tree); l’an, tal an (the year, in the year). The Friulian for to create is creâ; so does it conjugate in the simple past: o creai (I created; first-person singular); tu crearis (thou createdest; second-person singular); al creà (he created; masculine, third-person singular); e creà (she created; feminine, third-person singular); o crearin (we created; first-person plural); o crearis (you created; second-person plural); a crearin (they created; third-person plural). The student will note that the atonic al, masculine singular, is not omitted after the subject in an affirmative statement: Diu al creà (God created); il Signôr al creà (the Lord created); il Signôr Diu al creà (the Lord God created). Cîl is a masculine noun meaning heaven, whereas tiere is a feminine noun meaning earth; cîl e tiere, then, is read heaven and earth. In other contexts, cîl may be employed in the sense of sky, whereas tiere may be employed in the sense of land, ground, soil; for example, il cîl al è nulât means the sky is cloudy, and la tiere dai nestris nemîs means the land of our enemies.

Sentence II.

Il Signôr al è il gno pastôr: no mi mancjarà nuie. (Salm 23[22],1) The masculine noun Signôr is the Friulian for Lord; also masculine is the noun pastôr, meaning shepherd. Friulian expresses is in two ways: al è and e je. Al è is employed with a masculine singular subject: il Signôr al è (the Lord is); il pastôr al è (the shepherd is); l’om al è (the man is). E je is employed with a feminine singular subject: la stele e je (the star is); la cjase e je (the house is); la femine e je (the woman is). Gno is the Friulian for my, used with a masculine singular noun; with a feminine singular noun, it is rather that is used: il gno pastôr (my shepherd); il gno libri (my book); il gno predi (my priest); la mê citât (my city); la mê tiere (my land); la mê glesie (my church). No… nuie is the Friulian for nothing. A number of examples: al vûl, nol vûl nuie (he wants, he wants nothing); al viôt, nol viôt nuie (he sees, he sees nothing); e fâs, no fâs nuie (she does, she does nothing); e à viodût, no à viodût nuie (she has seen, she has seen nothing). Mancjâ (to be wanting, to lack) takes the form al mancjarà (it will be wanting, it will lack) in the masculine singular of the simple future; negated, this becomes nol mancjarà (it will not be wanting, it will not lack). Nol is the contraction of al and no. When nuie is employed, obtained is: nol mancjarà nuie (nothing will be wanting, nothing will lack), and when mi (unto me) is added thereto, obtained is: no mi mancjarà nuie (nothing will be wanting unto me, nothing will lack unto me). With the inclusion of mi, the contracted al of nol must be omitted, wherefore no in this instance. Another example: al darà, nol darà, no mi darà, no mi darà nuie (he will give, he will not give, he will not give to me, he will give nothing to me). Yet another example: al disarà, nol disarà, no mi disarà, no mi disarà nuie (he will say, he will not say, he will not say to me, he will say nothing to me).

Sentence III.

Chel che si inrabie cun so fradi al varà di passâ sot judizi. (Matieu 5,22) The Friulian chel che is equivalent to the he who of English; for instance, chel che al à (he who has); chel che al viôt (he who sees); chel che al fâs (he who does). In speech, che al of the foregoing examples contracts to one syllable: ch’al (sounds like kal), so that, for instance, chel che al à is pronounced in three syllables rather than four: chel/ ch’al/ à. Chel, masculine singular, is the Friulian for that, that one; in this way, chel che may also be read that one who. Inrabiâsi (to become wroth, to get angry) is a reflexive verb, evident from its si ending (inrabiâ + si); its present indicative conjugation follows: mi inrabii (I become wroth; first-person singular); tu ti inrabiis (thou becomest wroth; second-person singular); si inrabie (he/she/it becomes wroth; third-person singular); si inrabiìn (we become wroth; first-person plural); si inrabiais (you become wroth; second-person plural); si inrabiin (they become wroth; third-person plural). Chel che si inrabie, then, is the Friulian for he who becomes wroth, whosoever becomes angry, that one who gets angry, and so on. Cun is the Friulian for with. Fradi, a masculine noun, is the Friulian for brother; with the names of family members in the singular, the definite article is omitted before the possessive adjective: il so re (his/her king), but so fradi (his/her brother); il gno libri (my book), but gno pari (my father); la mê vore (my work), but mê mari (my mother). For a fuller treatment of Friulian possessive adjectives, the student ought to consult book I, lesson XXXIV. is the Friulian for to have, whereas vê di is the Friulian for to have to, must. In the simple future, so does conjugate: o varai (I shall have; first-person singular); tu varâs (thou wilt have; second-person singular); al varà (he will have; masculine, third-person singular); e varà (she will have, feminine, third-person singular); o varìn (we shall have; first-person plural); o varês (you will have; second-person plural); a varan (they will have; third-person plural). Al varà di translates quite literally from the Friulian as he will have to; in our sentence under review, this is employed in the sense of he shall. Passâ is the Friulian for to pass; sot is the Friulian for under; judizi, masculine noun, is the Friulian for judgement: passâ sot judizi, literally, to pass under judgement, which is to say, to come under judgement, to be judged.

Sentence IV.

Tu nus âs salvade la vite. (Gjenesi 47,25) Salvâ is the Friulian for to save; so does it conjugate in the recent past: o ài salvât (I have saved; first-person singular); tu âs salvât (thou hast saved; second-person singular); al à salvât (he has saved; masculine, third-person singular); e à salvât (she has saved; feminine, third-person singular); o vin salvât (we have saved; first-person plural); o vês salvât (you have saved; second-person plural); a àn salvât (they have saved; third-person plural). Salvât (saved) is the past participle of the salvâ (to save). A past participle takes four forms; in the case of salvât, these are: salvât (masculine singular); salvâts (masculine plural); salvade (feminine singular); salvadis (feminine plural). In our sentence under review, the past participle salvât takes the form salvade to agree in gender (feminine) and number (singular) with the feminine singular direct object la vite (the life). Nus (unto us) is an indirect object pronoun. The literal translation from the Friulian of tu nus âs salvade la vite is thou hast saved the life unto us, which is to say, thou hast saved our life. Other examples: tu mi âs salvade la vite (thou hast saved my life [thou hast saved the life unto me]); tu i âs salvade la vite (thou hast saved his/her life [thou hast saved the life unto him/her]).

Sentence V.

Fermaitsi culì, intant che jo o voi li a preâ. (Matieu 26,36) The transitive fermâ means to halt {something}, whereas the reflexive fermâsi means to halt oneself; for instance, fermâ la vore means to halt the work, whereas il tren si ferme means the train halts itself, which is to say, the train comes to a halt. In these words of Jesus, we find the second-person singular imperative fermaitsi, meaning halt yourselves. Of fermâsi, the imperative is: fermiti (halt thyself); fermaitsi (halt yourselves); fermìnsi (let us halt ourselves). The fuller command given by Jesus is fermaitsi culì, meaning halt yourselves here; other possible readings, to name but a few, include: come you to a halt here; wait you here; stay you here. The Friulian for here will be encountered by the student under a number of different forms: ca, chenti, chi, culì. As for intant che, this is the Friulian for whilst. Jo o voi means I go, from (to go); the present indicative conjugation of is: o voi (I go; first-person singular); tu vâs (thou goest; second-person singular); al va (he goes; masculine, third-person singular); e va (she goes; feminine, third-person singular); o lin (we go; first-person plural); o lais (you go; second-person plural); a van (they go; third-person plural). Li is the Friulian not only for there, but also thither; similarly, culì is the Friulian not only for here, but also hither. Given that in this context there is movement involved, li is here read thither. Preâ is the Friulian for to pray. In this way, intant che jo o voi li a preâ is read whilst I go thither to pray.

Sentence VI.

Ma Jesù no i rispuindè nancje une peraule. (Matieu 15,23) Ma is the Friulian for but. As for rispuindi, this is the Friulian for to respond; so does it conjugate in the simple past: o rispuindei (I responded; first-person singular); tu rispuinderis (thou respondedest; second-person singular); al rispuindè (he responded; masculine, third-person singular); e rispuindè (she responded; feminine, third-person singular); o rispuinderin (we responded; first-person plural); o rispuinderis (you responded; second-person plural); a rispuinderin (they responded; third-person plural). Consider the following: Jesù al rispuindè (Jesus responded); Jesù i rispuindè (Jesus responded unto her); Jesù nol rispuindè (Jesus responded not); Jesù no i rispuindè (Jesus responded not unto her). The singular indirect object pronoun i means either unto him, unto her or unto it, according to the context wherein it is used; its plural equivalent, for information, is ur (unto them), used for either of the genders: Jesù ur rispuindè (Jesus responded unto them). Peraule is a feminine noun meaning word; une peraule, then, means a word, one word. As for nancje, this is read not even, for instance: nol à nancje un dint (he has not even one tooth); no à nancje vincj agns (she is not even twenty years old [she has not even twenty years]); no âstu nancje capît? (hast thou not even understood?); no àn nancje mai provât (they have not even ever tried); no tu âs di zontâ nancje une peraule (thou needest not add even one word).

Sentence VII.

Isal ancjemò vîf gno pari? (Gjenesi 45,3) The Friulian for my father is gno pari; the student ought to also learn the following: to pari (thy father); so pari (his/her father); nestri pari (our father); vuestri pari (your father); lôr pari (their father). Care must be taken to understand the difference between to pari and vuestri pari; whereas the second-person singular to pari is employed when speaking with one person on a familar level, the second-person plural vuestri pari is employed when speaking with more than one. Ancjemò is the Friulian for yet, still. As for vîf, this is the Friulian for alive, living; it takes four forms: vîf (masculine singular); vîfs (masculine plural); vive (feminine singular); vivis (feminine plural). Isal is the interrogative form of al è, so that, for instance, the declarative al è vîf means he is alive, whereas the interrogative isal vîf? means is he alive?; following are both the declarative and interrogative forms of jessi (to be) for all persons in the present indicative: o soi; soio? (I am; am I?); tu sês; sêstu? (thou art; art thou?); al è; isal? (he is; is he?); e je; ise? (she is; is she?); o sin; sino? (we are; are we?); o sês; sêso? (you are; are you?); a son; sono? (they are; are they?). To expand on the earlier point regarding the difference between to pari and vuestri pari, were the student to ask one friend if his father were yet alive, he would say: isal ancjemò vîf to pari? (is thy father still alive?). Were he to ask the same question of two friends who also happen to be siblings, so would his question be put: isal ancjemò vîf vuestri pari? (is your father still alive?). If his two friends were not siblings, the question would be put thus: sono ancjemò vîfs vuestris paris? (are your fathers still alive?). Were he instead to ask regarding the mother, so would his three questions be put: ise ancjemò vive tô mari? (is thy mother still alive?); ise ancjemò vive vuestre mari? (is your mother still alive?); sono ancjemò vivis vuestris maris? (are your mothers still alive?).

Sentence VIII.

Tal dîs in veretât: vuê tu sarâs cun me in paradîs. (Luche 23,43) The Friulian for truth is the feminine noun veretât; in these words of Jesus, we encounter in veretât, meaning in truth, but also truly, verily. is the Friulian for to say, to tell; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o dîs (I say; first-person singular); tu disis (thou sayest; second-person singular); al dîs (he says; masculine, third-person singular); e dîs (she says; feminine, third-person singular); o disìn (we say; first-person plural); o disês (you say; second-person plural); a disin (they say; third-person plural). The student will note the difference in pronunciation between the first-person plural disìn and the third-person plural disin: in the former, the tonic stress is on the final syllable (indicated by the accent), whereas in the latter it is on the first syllable. Consider now the following: o dîs (I say); ti dîs (I say to thee); tal dîs (I say it to thee). Tal is the contraction of ti (to thee) and the masculine singular direct object pronoun lu (it). In the presence of ti (and any forms contracted therewith, such as tal), the atonic o of o dîs is omitted. Tal dîs in veretât, then, is read I say it to thee in truth, I tell it thee in truth, which is a Friulian manner of expressing truly I tell thee. Vuê is the Friulian for today. Cun me is the Friulian for with me. As for paradîs, this is a masculine noun meaning paradise; in paradîs, then, means in paradise. Of jessi (to be), following is the simple future: o sarai (I shall be; first-person singular); tu sarâs (thou wilt be; second-person singular); al sarà (he will be; masculine, third-person singular); e sarà (she will be; feminine, third-person singular); o sarìn (we shall be; first-person plural); o sarês (you will be; second-person plural); a saran (they will be; third-person plural). Tu sarâs (thou wilt be) may also be read thou shalt be, and it moreover ought to be in this context, given that the Friulian simple future can be used for promises.

Sentence IX.

No vês ni di mangjânt ni di tocjânt, se no o murirês. (Gjenesi 3,3) By these words, God instructs that Adam and Eve are neither to eat nor touch of the tree in the middle of the garden. Whereas the Friulian means to have, vê di (+ infinitive) means must, to have to; for instance, o ài un libri means I have a book, but o ài di lavorâ means I must work, I have to work. Of vê di, following is the present indicative conjugation: o ài di (I must; first-person singular); tu âs di (thou must; second-person singular); al à di (he must; masculine, third-person singular); e à di (she must; feminine, third-person singular); o vin di (we must; first-person plural); o vês di (you must; second-person plural); a àn di (they must; third-person plural). Negated, the above become: no ài di; no tu âs di; nol à di; no à di; no vin di; no vês di; no àn di. In this way, the second-person singular tu âs di mangjâ means thou must eat, whereas no tu âs di mangjâ means thou must not eat; and the second-person plural o vês di mangjâ means you must eat, whereas no vês di mangjâ means you must not eat. In the words of God, found however are not mangjâ and tocjâ, but mangjânt and tocjânt; the nt suffix is read thereof, therefrom, of it, from it, and it refers back to the tree in the middle of the garden: no vês di mangjânt (you must not eat thereof, you must not eat of it); no vês di tocjânt (you must not touch thereof, you must not touch of it). Neither… nor is expressed in Friulian by way of no… ni… ni…, so that no vês ni di mangjânt ni di tocjânt is read you must neither eat thereof nor touch thereof. Se no is the Friulian for otherwise. As for murî, this is the Friulian for to die; so does it conjugate in the simple future: o murirai (I shall die; first-person singular); tu murirâs (thou wilt die; second-person singular); al murirà (he will die; masculine, third-person singular); e murirà (she will die; feminine, third-person singular); o murirìn (we shall die; first-person plural); o murirês (you will die; second-person plural); a muriran (they will die; third-person plural). O murirês (you will die) may also be read you shall die, and it moreover ought to be in this context, given that the Friulian simple future can be used for threats.

Sentence X.

Nol pò un arbul bon fâ pomis tristis e nancje un arbul trist fâ pomis buinis. (Matieu 7,18) Two adjectives here appear: bon (good) and trist (evil, wicked). The four forms of bon are: bon (masculine singular); bogns (masculine plural); buine (feminine singular); buinis (feminine plural). Of trist, the four forms are: trist (masculine singular); triscj (masculine plural); triste (feminine singular); tristis (feminine plural). Also encountered are two nouns: the masculine arbul (tree) and the feminine pome (fruit); the plural of the former is arbui (trees), and the plural of the latter is pomis (fruits). In this way, un arbul bon means a good tree, whereas un arbul trist means an evil tree; and fâ pomis tristis means to make evil fruits, whereas fâ pomis buinis means to make good fruits. As for the verb podê (can, to be able), so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o pues (I can; first-person singular); tu puedis (thou canst; second-person singular); al pues (he can; masculine, third-person singular); e pues (she can; feminine, third-person singular); o podìn (we can; first-person plural); o podês (you can; second-person plural); a puedin (they can; third-person plural). Negated, these are: no pues; no tu puedis; nol pues (or nol pò); no pues (or no pò); no podìn; no podês; no puedin. Study the following: un arbul al pues (a tree can); un arbul nol pues or un arbul nol pò (a tree cannot); une pome e pues (a fruit can); une pome no pues or une pome no pò (a fruit cannot). In the foregoing examples, the masculine singular subject arbul calls for the masculine singular forms of verb: al pues (affirmative) and nol pues or nol pò (negative); the feminine singular subject pome calls for the feminine singular forms of verb: e pues (affirmative) and no pues or no pò (negative). E nancje is the Friulian for neither. Following is a translation of the sentence: nol pò un arbul bon (a good tree cannot) fâ pomis tristis (make evil fruits) e nancje un arbul trist (neither an evil tree) fâ pomis buinis (make good fruits).

Sentence XI.

Alore ur al disarai clâr: No us ài mai cognossûts. (Matieu 7,23) Alore is the Friulian for then. As for clâr, this is here read clearly, plainly. (to say) conjugates so in the simple future: o disarai (I shall say; first-person singular); tu disarâs (thou wilt say; second-person singular); al disarà (he will say; masculine, third-person singular); e disarà (she will say; feminine, third-person singular); o disarìn (we shall say; first-person plural); o disarês (you will say; second-person plural); a disaran (they will say; third-person plural). In alore ur al disarai clâr (I shall say it to them plainly), found is ur al, which is the contraction of ur (unto them) and lu (it). So do all the indirect object pronouns contract with lu: (i) mal (= mi [unto me] + lu); (ii) tal (= ti [unto thee] + lu); (iii) jal (= i [unto him, her, it] + lu); (iv) sal (= si [unto oneself] + lu); (v) nus al (= nus [unto us] + lu); (vi) us al (= us [unto you] + lu); (vii) ur al (= ur [unto them] + lu). Examples: tal disarai (I shall say it to thee); jal ài dit (I have said it to him); ur al disês (you say it to them); mal disaran (they will say it to me); no tu nus al disevis (thou wast not saying it to us). To speak of knowing a person, Friulian employs cognossi (to know, to be acquianted with). Although the present indicative of cognossi appears not in this sentence, here is how its conjugates in this tense, for reference of the student: o cognòs (I know; first-person singular); tu cognossis (thou knowest; second-person singular); al cognòs (he knows; masculine, third-person singular); e cognòs (she knows; feminine, third-person singular); o cognossìn (we know; first-person plural); o cognossês (you know; second-person plural); a cognossin (they know; third-person plural). Examples: mi cognossin benon (they know me very well); a son cinc agns che si cognossìn (it is five years that we know one another). Found in this sentence is the recent past of cognossi, which conjugates so: o ài cognossût (I have known; first-person singular); tu âs cognossût (thou hast known; second-person singular); al à cognossût (he has known; masculine, third-person singular); e à cognossût (she has known; feminine, third-person singular); o vin cognossût (we have known; first-person plural); o vês cognossût (you have known; second-person plural); a àn cognossût (they have known; third-person plural). Past participles can take four forms; of the past participle cognossût, these four forms are: cognossût (masculine singular); cognossûts (masculine plural); cognossude (feminine singular); cognossudis (feminine plural). In no us ài mai cognossûts (I have never known you), the past participle takes the masculine plural form cognossûts to agree in gender and number with the masculine plural direct object us (you). Study the following: o ài cognossût (I have known); no ài cognossût (I have not known); no ài mai cognossût (I have never known); no us ài mai cognossûts (I have never known you).

Sentence XII.

Ma ind è cualchidun fra di vualtris che nol crôt. (Zuan 6,64) The Friulian ind è means there is, there are. Ind derives from indi (thereof), where the final i is dropped before the vowel of the verb è. Its negated form as used in the Friulian version of the Holy Bible is no ’nd è (there is not, there are not), where even the first i of indi is dropped, for it is immediately preceded by the final vowel of no. Ind è is pronounced indè, whereas no ’nd è is pronounced nondè. Examples: ind è un slac di resons (there are many reasons); no ’nd è nissun come lui (there is none like him); no ’nd è plui pan in citât (there is no more bread in the city); no ’nd è testemonis cuintri di jê (there are no witnesses against her). Cualchidun can take either a singular reading (someone, anyone) or a plural reading (some); in the context of this sentence, it takes the plural reading some. Examples: cualchidun al è stât copât (someone has been killed); isal cualchidun in cjase? (is anyone home?); cualchidun al è tornât e cualchidun altri no (some returned and some others did not). Fra di vualtris means amongst you. Crodi is the Friulian for to believe; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o crôt (I believe; first-person singular); tu crodis (thou believest; second-person singular); al crôt (he believes; masculine, third-person singular); e crôt (she believes; feminine, third-person singular); o crodìn (we believe; first-person plural); o crodês (you believe; second-person plural); a crodin (they believe; third-person plural). Negated, these are: no crôt; no tu crodis; nol crôt; no crôt; no crodìn; no crodês; no crodin. Cualchidun is taken as a masculine, third-person singular subject, wherefore nol crôt. Following is a translation of the sentence: Ma ind è cualchidun (but there are some) fra di vualtris (amongst you) che nol crôt (who believe not).

Sentence XIII.

Alore Jesù ur disè ai Dodis: «Volêso lâsint ancje vualtris?». (Zuan 6,67) Dodis is the Friulian for twelve; i Dodis (the Twelve) refers to the twelve apostles of Jesus. As for ai Dodis, this is the Friulian for to the Twelve, where ai is the contraction of a (to) and i (the, masculine plural). Following is how (to say) conjugates in the simple past: o disei (I said; first-person singular); tu diseris (thou saidest; second-person singular); al disè (he said; masculine, third-person singular); e disè (she said; feminine, third-person singular); o diserin (we said; first-person plural); o diseris (you said; second-person plural); a diserin (they said; third-person plural). Study the following: alore Jesù al disè (then Jesus said); alore Jesù ur disè (then Jesus said to them); alore Jesù ur disè ai Dodis (then Jesus said to the Twelve). Lâsint is the Friulian for to go away; in the words of Jesus, it is found in infinitive form, but here is how it conjugates in the present indicative, for reference: mi ’nt voi (I go away; first-person singular); tu ti ’nt vâs (thou goest away; second-person singular); si ’nt va (he/she/it goes away; third-person singular); si ’nt lin (we go away; first-person plural); si ’nt lais (you go away; second-person plural); si ’nt van (they go away; third-person plural). The contracted ’nt, which derives from indi, sounds like the ng of English, so that, for instance, mi ’nt voi sounds like ming voy. Volê is the Friulian for to want, to will; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o vuei (I want, I will; first-person singular); tu vuelis (thou wantest, thou wilt; second-person singular); al vûl (he wants, he will; third-person singular); e vûl (she wants, she will; third-person singular); o volìn (we want, we will; first-person plural); o volês (you want, you will; second-person plural); a vuelin (they want, they will; third-person plural). In the interrogative, these are: vuelio?; vuelistu?; vuelial?; vuelie?; volìno?; volêso?; vuelino? A variant exists in the second-person singular: tu vûs; vûstu? As for ancje vualtris, this is the Friulian for also you, you too: ancje (also, too); vualtris (you, second-person plural). Jesus asks the Twelve: Volêso lâsint ancje vualtris? (will you go away, also you?).

Sentence XIV.

Chest lu diseve par fâur capî di ce muart che al stave par murî. (Zuan 12,33) Chest is the Friulian for this; it takes four different forms: chest (masculine singular); chescj (masculine plural); cheste (feminine singular); chestis (feminine plural). Chest is here employed in the masculine singular to refer to that which Jesus has said. In the imperfect, so does (to say) conjugate: o disevi (I was saying; first-person singular); tu disevis (thou wast saying; second-person singular); al diseve (he was saying; masculine, third-person singular); e diseve (she was saying; feminine, third-person singular); o disevin (we were saying; first-person plural); o disevis (you were saying; second-person plural); a disevin (they were saying; third-person plural). Study the following: al diseve (he was saying); lu diseve (he was saying it); chest lu diseve (he was saying this [this, he was saying it]). Chest lu diseve is a typically Friulian manner of expression, where the direct object is placed at the head of the utterance and then reprised by way of its pronoun; another example: la domande no le capivi (I was not understanding the question [the question, I was not understanding it]). Ur is the Friulian for unto them; whereas par fâ capî means to make understand, par fâur capî means to make understand unto them, which is to say, to make them understand. The Friulian for death is the feminine noun muart; in our sentence, di ce muart is read by what death, of what death or from what death, which is to say, by (of, from) what {manner of} death. Murî is the Friulian for to die; as for stâ par murî, this means to be about to die. In the imperfect, stâ par (to be about to) conjugates so: o stavi par (I was about to; first-person singular); tu stavis par (thou wast about to; second-person singular); al stave par (he was about to; masculine, third-person singular); e stave par (she was about to; feminine, third-person singular); o stavin par (we were about to; first-person plural); o stavis par (you were about to; second-person plural); a stavin par (they were about to; third-person plural). Supplementary examples: i libris o stavi par comprâju (I was about to buy the books [the books, I was about to buy them]); il miluç al stave par mangjâlu (he was about to eat the apple [the apple, he was about to eat it]). Following is a translation of our sentence under review: Chest lu diseve (he was saying this [this, he was saying it]) par fâur capî (to make them understand [to make understand unto them]) di ce muart che al stave par murî (by what death he was about to die).

Sentence XV.

No ’nd è nissun altri comandament plui grant di chescj. (Marc 12,31) No ’nd è is here read there is not; for notes related to this usage, the student ought to return to sentence XII. Nissun altri comandament is the Friulian for no other commandment: nissun (no, none, not one, not any); altri (other); il comandament (commandment). Given that comandament is a masculine noun, the masculine form nissun altri is employed therewith; the feminine form nissune altre is employed with a feminine noun, for instance: nissune altre lenghe (no other language). Nissun altri and nissune altre are employed only in the singular. Plui grant di is the Friulian for greater than: plui (more); grant (great); di (than). As for plui grant di chescj, this is the Friulian for greater than these, where chescj is the masculine plural of chest (this); see the notes at sentence XIV. Following are a number of supplementary examples of no ’nd è for consideration by the student: no ’nd è nissun altri fûr di lui (there is no other apart from him); no ’nd è nissun compagn di te (there is none like thee); no ’nd è nissun come lui su la tiere (there is none like him on the earth); no ’nd è nissun altri om plui devot di lui (there is no other man more devout than he); no ’nd è nissune altre situazion plui dure di cheste (there is no other situation more difficult than this). In the foregoing example, the adjective dûr means hard, difficult; it takes four forms: dûr (masculine singular); dûrs (masculine plural); dure (feminine singular); duris (feminine plural).

Sentence XVI.

No tu sês lontan dal ream di Diu. (Marc 12,34) The present indicative of jessi (to be), also expressed as sei, is the following: jo o soi (I am; first-person singular); tu tu sês (thou art; second-person singular); lui al è (he is; masculine, third-person singular); jê e je (she is; feminine, third-person singular); nualtris o sin (we are; first-person plural); vualtris o sês (you are; second-person plural); lôr a son (they are; third-person plural). Take now lui al è as an example: lui is the tonic pronoun, whereas al is the atonic; the tonic pronouns (jo, tu, lui, jê, nualtris, vualtris, lôr) may be omitted, but the atonic pronouns (o, tu, al, e, o, o, a) are left to stand in affirmative statements, so that, for instance, Diu al è grant is the Friulian for God is great, where the subject Diu replaces the tonic pronoun lui. In the second-person singular, the tonic and atonic pronouns are both tu: the tonic pronoun is the first, and the atonic is the second, as is customary. Consider now the negations: jo no soi (I am not); tu no tu sês (thou art not); lui nol è (he is not); jê no je (she is not); nualtris no sin (we are not); vualtris no sês (you are not); lôr no son (they are not). To be noted with regard to the negations is this, that no forces the omission of the atonic pronoun, with exception to the second-person singular, where it is left to stand; and to the masculine, third-person singular, where it contracts with the atonic al to form nol. The tonic pronoun is customarily omitted, being employed primarily for contrast with other subjects (jo o soi content, ma lui al è avilît [I am happy, but he is sad]); in this way, the following are the usual forms to be encountered: o soi (I am); tu sês (thou art); al è (he is); e je (she is); o sin (we are); o sês (you are); a son (they are); and negated, these are: no soi (I am not); no tu sês (thou art not); nol è (he is not); no je (she is not); no sin (we are not); no sês (you are not); no son (they are not). The Friulian lontan di means far from, whereas the masculine noun ream is the Friulian for kingdom. Di (from) contracts with the masculine singular definite article il (the) to form dal (from the), so that lontan dal ream di Diu means far from the kingdom of God. The adjective lontan (far) takes four forms: lontan (masculine singular); lontans (masculine plural); lontane (feminine singular); lontanis (feminine plural).

Sentence XVII.

Chel di vualtris che al è cence pecjât, che al tiri il prin clap cuintri di jê. (Zuan 8,7) Chel di vualtris is the Friulian for he amongst you (literally, that one of you). Chel takes four different forms: chel (that one; masculine singular); chei (those ones; masculine plural); chê (that one; feminine singular); chês (those ones; feminine plural). Were chel di vualtris to be pluralised, so would we obtain: chei di vualtris (they amongst you [those ones of you]). Were the utterance to be made with regard to female gender, so would we obtain: chê di vualtris (she amongst you [that one of you]); chês di vualtris (they amongst you [those ones of you]). Cence is the Friulian for without, whereas pecjât is a masculine noun meaning sin, wherefore cence pecjât is the Friulian for without sin. Chel di vualtris che al è cence pecjât: he amongst you who is without sin. Clap is a masculine noun meaning stone; il prin clap means the first stone. The adjective prin takes four forms: prin (masculine singular); prins (masculine plural); prime (feminine singular); primis (feminine plural). Examples: il prin pecjât (the first sin); i prins oms (the first men); la prime stele (the first star); lis primis peraulis (the first words). Tirâ is the Friulian for to cast, to throw. Consider: al tire – che al tiri (he casts – let him cast). Whereas al tire is the present indicative, che al tiri is the present subjunctive. More examples: al fevele – che al feveli (he speaks – let him speak); al cope – che al copi (he kills – let him kill); al puarte – che al puarti (he brings – let him bring); al pense – che al pensi (he thinks – let him think); al mangje – che al mangji (he eats – let him eat); al prove – che al provi (he tries – let him try); al torne – che al torni (he returns – let him return). Of the foregoing present subjunctive forms, the following variants are possible: che al tiredi; che al feveledi; che al copedi; che al puartedi; che al pensedi; che al mangjedi; che al provedi; che al tornedi. Cuintri is the Friulian for against, so that, for instance, the following can be said: cuintri di me (against me); cuintri di te (against thee); cuintri di lui (against him); cuintri di jê (against her); cuintri di nualtris; cuintri di nô (against us); cuintri di vualtris; cuintri di vô (against you); cuintri di lôr (against them). Che al tiri il prin clap cuintri di jê: let him cast the first stone against her.

Sentence XVIII.

Alore Jesù al scomençà a dîur: «Stait atents che nissun no us imbroi». (Marc 13,5) Scomençâ is the Friulian for to begin, to start; it is here found in the masculine, third-person singular of the simple past: alore Jesù al scomençà (then Jesus began). This simple past usage is above all a written form; in colloquial conversation, he began would rather be said al à scomençât. Examples: al scomençà a domandâ – al à scomençât a domandâ (he began to ask); al scomençà a lavorâ – al à scomençât a lavorâ (he began to work); al scomençà a mangjâ – al à scomençât a mangjâ (he began to eat); al scomençà a dîur – al à scomençât a dîur (he began to say to them). Dîur (to say to them) is the contraction of (to say) and ur (to them). Stâ atent is the Friulian for to be mindful; as for stait atents, this is a second-person plural imperative meaning be you mindful. Atent (attentive, mindful) takes four different forms: atent (masculine singular); atents (masculine plural); atente (feminine singular); atentis (feminine plural). The verb stâ (to be, to dwell) takes such forms in the imperative: sta (be {thou}; second-person singular); stait (be {you}; second-person plural); stin (let us be; first-person plural). Consider the following: sta atent (be thou mindful; spoken to a male); sta atente (be thou mindful; spoken to a female); stait atents (be you mindful; spoken to males or mixed gender); stait atentis (be you mindful; spoken to females). Imbroiâ is the Friulian for to deceive. So does it conjugate in the present indicative: o imbroi (I deceive); tu imbrois (thou deceivest); al imbroie (he deceives); e imbroie (she deceives); o imbroìn (we deceive); o imbroiais (you deceive); a imbroin (they deceive). Consider the following: nissun nol imbroie (nobody deceives); nissun no us imbroie (nobody deceives you); stait atents che nissun no us imbroi (be you mindful that nobody deceive you). Whereas al imbroie is the present indicative, al imbroi is the present subjunctive, and this latter form is the one found in our sentence under review. It is the employment of stait atents che that is here forcing the use of the subjunctive. Consider more examples: al è – sta atent che al sedi (he is – be thou mindful that he be); al à – stait atents che al vedi (he has – be you mindful that he have); al ven – stin atents che al vegni (he comes – let us be mindful that he come). Of imbroiâ, following is the present subjunctive conjugation: che o imbroi (that I may deceive); che tu imbrois (that thou may deceive); chel al imbroi (that he may deceive); che e imbroi (that she may deceive); che o imbroìn (that we may deceive); che o imbroiais (that you may deceive); che a imbroin (that they may deceive). An alternative present subjunctive conjugation exists: che o imbroiedi; che tu imbroiedis; che al imbroiedi; che e imbroiedi; che o imbroiedin; che o imbroiedis; che a imbroiedin.

Sentence XIX.

Che nol stedi a inrabiâsi il gno Signôr se o feveli pe ultime volte. (Gjenesi 18,32) Here we have an instance of the negated imperative of the masculine, third-person singular. Study the following: che nol stedi (let him not; masculine, third-person singular); che no stedi (let her not; feminine, third-person singular); che no stedin (let them not; masculine or feminine, third-person plural). Inrabiâsi is the Friulian for to become wroth, to get angry. Consider: che nol stedi (let him not); che nol stedi a inrabiâsi (let him not become wroth); che nol stedi a inrabiâsi il gno Signôr (let my Lord not become wroth). Supplementary examples: gno pari che nol stedi a sintîlu (let my father not hear it); che no stedi a preocupâsi mê mari (let my mother not worry); che nol stedi a inrabiâsi il re (let the king not become wroth); i fruts che no stedin a vaî (let the children not weep). Se o feveli is the Friulian for if I speak; the present indicative of fevelâ was presented at book I, lesson XII. Volte is a feminine noun meaning time. As for the adjective last, the Friulian is ultin, which takes four forms: ultin (masculine singular); ultins (masculine plural); ultime (feminine singular); ultimis (feminine plural). In this way, la ultime volte is the Friulian for the last time; pe ultime volte, on the other hand, means for the last time, where pe is the contraction of par (for) and the feminine singular definite article la (the). Of volte, the plural is voltis (times), so that, for instance, dôs voltis means twice, two times; trê voltis means thrice, three times; and tes ultimis setemanis si sin viodûts cinc voltis means in the last few weeks we have seen one another five times. Setemane is a feminine noun meaning week.

Sentence XX.

Benedet chel che al ven tal non dal Signôr. (Matieu 21,9) Benedet is the Friulian for blessed; it takes four different forms, as is customary for an adjective: benedet (masculine singular); benedets (masculine plural); benedete (feminine singular); benedetis (feminine plural). The Friulian for he who is chel che; another instance of this is found at sentence III. Vignî (to come) is irregular; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o ven (I come); tu vegnis (thou comest); al ven (he comes); e ven (she comes); o vignìn (we come); o vignîs (you come); a vegnin (they come). The interrogative of the all the foregoing is: vegnio? (do I come?); vegnistu? (dost thou come?); vegnial? (does he come?); vegnie? (does she come?); vignìn? (do we come?); vignîso? (do you come?); vegnino? (do they come?). Supplementary examples of the interrogative: dontri vegnistu?; d’indulà vegnistu?; di dulà vegnistu? (from where dost thou come?); parcè no vegnial a studiâ cun me? (why does he not come to study with me?); parcè no vignîso in Friûl? (why do you not come to Friûl?). The Friulian for name is the masculine noun non; for Lord, it is the masculine noun Signôr. Tal non dal Signôr, then, means in the name of the Lord, where tal (in the) is the contraction of in (in) and the masculine singular definite article il (the), and dal (of the) is the contraction of di (of) and the masculine singular definite article il (the). Of dal Signôr, a number of supplementary examples with new vocabulary: la glorie dal Signôr (the glory of the Lord); la peraule dal Signôr (the word of the Lord); la potence dal Signôr (the power of the Lord); il santuari dal Signôr (the sanctuary of the Lord); la strade dal Signôr (the way of the Lord); la leç dal Signôr (the law of the Lord); l’altâr dal Signôr (the altar of the Lord); la presince dal Signôr (the presence of the Lord).

Sentence XXI.

Cemût sucedaraial dut chest, dal moment che jo no cognòs om? (Luche 1,34) Sucedi is the Friulian for to come to pass, to happen, to occur. It would be well for the student to learn these verb forms thereof: al sucêt (it comes to pass); al sucedeve (it was coming to pass); al sucedè (it came to pass); al sucedarà (it will come to pass); al sucedarès (it would come to pass); al è sucedût (it has come to pass); al jere sucedût (it had come to pass); al sarà sucedût (it will have come to pass); al sarès sucedût (it would have come to pass). In these words of Mary (or Marie, in Friulian), we find sucedaraial?, which is the interrogative form of the simple future al sucedarà. Of all the verb forms provided above, and in the same order, the interrogatives are: cemût sucedial? (how does it come to pass?); cemût sucedevial? (how was it coming to pass?); cemût sucederial? (how did it come to pass?); cemût sucedaraial? (how will it come to pass?); cemût sucedaressial? (how would it come to pass?); cemût isal sucedût? (how has it come to pass?); cemût jerial sucedût? (how had it come to pass?); cemût saraial sucedût? (how will it have come to pass?); cemût saressial sucedût? (how would it have come to pass?). Dut chest is the Friulian for all this. Cemût sucedaraial dut chest?, then, means how will all this come to pass? As for dal moment che, this is read given that. Cognossi is the Friulian for to know, to be acquainted with; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o cognòs (I know); tu cognossis (thou knowest); al cognòs (he knows); e cognòs (she knows); o cognossìn (we know); o cognossês (you know); a cognossin (they know). Negated, these are: no cognòs; no tu cognossis; nol cognòs; no cognòs; no cognossìn; no cognossês; no cognossin. Of these negations, it will be noted that the first-person singular takes the same form as the feminine third-person singular (no cognòs), wherefore the inclusion in our sentence of the tonic pronoun jo (I) eliminates any doubt: (jo) no cognòs (I know not); (jê) no cognòs (she knows not). The masculine noun om means man. Dal moment che jo no cognòs om, then, means given that I know not man.

Sentence XXII.

Marie e restà cun jê un trê mês; po e tornà cjase sô. (Luche 1,56) Restâ is the Friulian for to remain, to stay; it is found here in the simple past, which conjugates so: o restai (I remained); tu restaris (thou remainedest); al restà (he remained); e restà (she remained); o restarin (we remained); o restaris (you remained); a restarin (they remained). The simple past is literary and employed in the narrative portions of the Bible; in colloquial Friulian conversation, it is rather the recent past that is employed: o soi restât (I remained, I have remained; feminine: o soi restade); tu sês restât (thou remainedest, thou hast remained; feminine: tu sês restade); al è restât (he remained, he has remained); e je restade (she remained, she has remained); o sin restâts (we remained, we have remained; feminine: o sin restadis); o sês restâts (you remained, you have remained; feminine: o sês restadis); a son restâts (they remained, they have remained; feminine: a son restadis). Cun jê is the Friulian for with her; also to be learnt: cun me (with me); cun te (with thee); cun lui (with him); cun sè (with oneself); cun nualtris, cun nô (with us); cun vualtris, cun vô (with you); cun lôr (with them). Mês is a masculine noun meaning month, and its plural form is also mês; for instance, un mês means one month, and doi mês means two months. Now whereas trê mês means three months, the approximative un trê mês means some three months, about three months. More examples: un cinc chilometris (some five kilometres); un vincj agns indaûr (some twenty years ago); from these examples, the following vocabulary is to be learnt: cinc (five); un chilometri (a kilometre); vincj (twenty); un an (a year; plural: i agns); indaûr (ago). Marie e restà cun jê un trê mês: Mary remained with her some three months. Po is Friulian for then. As for tornâ, this means to return, to go back; so does it conjugate in the simple past: o tornai (I returned); tu tornaris (thou returnedest); al tornà (he returned); e tornà (she returned); o tornarin (we returned); o tornaris (you returned); a tornarin (they returned). In colloquial Friulian conversation, it is rather the recent past that is employed: o soi tornât (I returned, I have returned; feminine: o soi tornade); tu sês tornât (thou returnedest, thou hast returned; feminine: tu sês tornade); al è tornât (he returned, he has returned); e je tornade (she returned, she has returned); o sin tornâts (we returned, we have returned; feminine: o sin tornadis); o sês tornâts (you returned, you have returned; feminine: o sês tornadis); a son tornâts (they returned, they have returned; feminine: a son tornadis). Cjase is a feminine noun meaning house, home; as for cjase sô, this is an adverbial usage. Consider the following: o soi tornât cjase mê (I went home); tu sês tornât cjase tô (thou wentest home); al è tornât cjase sô (he went home); e je tornade cjase sô (she went home); o sin tornâts cjase nestre (we went home); o sês tornâts cjase vuestre (you went home); a son tornâts cjase lôr (they went home). It is possible to omit the possessive adjective: o soi tornât cjase (I went home); o sin tornâts cjase (we went home); o voi cjase (I am going home). Po e tornà cjase sô: then she returned home.

Sentence XXIII.

Dute la citât si jere dade dongje denant de puarte. (Marc 1,33) The adjective dut (all) takes four forms: dut (masculine singular); ducj (masculine plural); dute (feminine singular); dutis (feminine plural). Examples: dut il gras (all the fat); dut il cuarp (all the body); ducj i sants (all the saints); ducj i forescj (all the foreigners); dute la citât (all the city); dute la tiere (all the earth); dutis lis peraulis (all the words); dutis lis robis (all the things). For information, the singular of the masculine plural forescj (foreigners, outsiders, strangers) is forest (foreigner, outsider, stranger), for instance il so paron al è un forest means his master is a foreigner, his boss is a foreigner. Study the following: dut il borc si è dât dongje (all the village has gathered together); ducj i borcs si son dâts dongje (all the villages have gathered together); dute la citât si è dade dongje (all the city has gathered together); dutis lis citâts si son dadis dongje (all the cities have gathered together). Now study the following: dut il borc si jere dât dongje (all the village had gathered together); ducj i borcs si jerin dâts dongje (all the villages had gathered together); dute la citât si jere dade dongje (all the city had gathered together); dutis lis citâts si jerin dadis dongje (all the cities had gathered together). The Friulian for door is the feminine noun puarte. Examples: la puarte de cjase e je sierade (the door of the house is closed); la puarte de glesie e je vierte (the door of the church is open). For information, sierât is the Friulian for closed, whereas viert is the Friulian for open; these adjectives take four forms: sierât, viert (masculine singular); sierâts, vierts (masculine plural); sierade, vierte (feminine singular); sieradis, viertis (feminine plural); Denant di means before, in front of. As for denant de puarte, this means before the door, in front of the door, where de (of the) is the contraction of di (of) and the feminine singular definite article la (the). Of denant di, further examples: denant dal mâr (before the sea, in front of the sea); denant dai poçs (before the wells, in front of the wells); denant de barcje (before the boat, in front of the boat); denant des monts (before the mountains, in front of the mountains).

Sentence XXIV.

E se o saludais dome i vuestris fradis, ce fasêso di speciâl? (Matieu 5,47) Saludâ is the Friulian for to salute, to greet; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o saludi (I salute); tu saludis (thou salutest); al salude (he salutes); e salude (she salutes); o saludìn (we salute); o saludais (you salute); a saludin (they salute). Se is the Friulian for if. As for dome, this means only; the variant form nome also exists. The Friulian for brother is the masculine noun fradi; the plural fradis is read brothers or brethren. With nouns identifying family members (such as father [pari], mother [mari], brother [fradi], sister [sûr], uncle [barbe], aunt [agne]), the definite article is omitted before the possessive adjective; however, in the plural, the definite article reappears. Examples: (masculine singular) gno fradi (my brother); to fradi (thy brother); so fradi (his/her brother); nestri fradi (our brother); vuestri fradi (your brother); lôr fradi (their brother); (masculine plural) i miei fradis (my brethren); i tiei fradis (thy brethren); i siei fradis (his/her brethren); i nestris fradis (our brethren); i vuestris fradis (your brethren); i lôr fradis (their brethren); (feminine singular) mê sûr (my sister); tô sûr (thy sister); sô sûr (his/her sister); nestre sûr (our sister); vuestre sûr (your sister); lôr sûr (their sister); (feminine plural) lis mês sûrs (my sisters); lis tôs sûrs (thy sisters); lis sôs sûrs (his/her sisters); lis nestris sûrs (our sisters); lis vuestris sûrs (your sisters); lis lôr sûrs (their sisters). More examples yet: gno barbe (my uncle); i miei barbis (my uncles); sô agne (his/her aunt); lis sôs agnis (his/her aunts). The student will note this exception that, even in the singular, the definite article is employed before the possessive adjective in the matter of husband and wife: il gno om (my husband); la sô femine (his wife); i lôr oms (their husbands); lis lôr feminis (their wives), and so on. Fâ, the Friulian for to do, to make, conjugates so in the present indicative: o fâs (I do, I make); tu fasis (thou doest, thou makest); al fâs (he does, he makes); e fâs (she does, she makes); o fasìn (we do, we make); o fasês (you do, you make); a fasin (they do, they make). These take the following forms in the interrogative: fasio?; fasistu?; fasial?; fasie?; fasìno?; fasêso?; fasino? Examples: ce fasêso? (what do you?, what make you?); parcè lu fasial cussì? (why does he it so?, why makes he it so?); cemût fasio a imparâlu? (how am I to go about learning it? [how do I to learn it?]). Speciâl is the Friulian for special; it takes such forms: speciâl (masculine singular); speciâi (masculine plural); speciâl (feminine singular); speciâls (feminine plural). Our sentence under review, words of Christ, may be translated so from the Friulian: E se o saludais dome i vuestris fradis (and if you salute only your brethren), ce fasêso di speciâl? (wherein do you any special thing? [what do you of special?]).

Sentence XXV.

Cuant che lu gafe, lu sdrondene di ca e di là e lui al bute fûr la bave, al cruste i dincj e al devente dut dûr. (Marc 9,18) A man brings his son to Jesus, that the lad be healed of a dumb and deaf spirit. The Friulian for spirit is the masculine noun spirt. For dumb, mute, the Friulian is mut, whereas for deaf, the Friulian is sort; these adjectives take four forms: mut, sort (masculine singular); muts, sorts (masculine plural); mute, sorde (feminine singular); mutis, sordis (feminine plural). Gafâ is the Friulian for to seize. Consider: il spirt al gafe so fi (the spirit seizes his son); il spirt lu gafe (the spirit seizes him); cuant che lu gafe (when it seizes him). Sdrondenâ is the Friulian for to toss; as for di ca e di là, this is read to and fro, hither and thither. Consider: il spirt al sdrondene (the spirit tosses); il spirt lu sdrondene (the spirit tosses him); lu sdrondene di ca e di là (it tosses him to and fro). Bave is a feminine noun meaning drool, saliva or, more poetically, foam. As for butâ fûr, this translates literally as to cast forth; the expression butâ fûr la bave (literally, to cast forth drool) may be read idiomatically in English as to foam at the mouth. The man says of his son: e lui al bute fûr la bave (and he foams at the mouth [and he casts forth drool]). He also says that his son grinds his teeth: al cruste i dincj; and that he becomes all stiff: al devente dut dûr. The Friulian for tooth is the masculine noun dint; this takes the plural form dincj (teeth). As for crustâ, this is read to grind; crustâ i dincj, then, means to grind one’s teeth. With regard to i dincj (literally, the teeth), it is often the case in Friulian that, especially in the matter of one’s body parts, the definite article takes the force of a possessive adjective. Deventâ is the Friulian for to become; dut, the Friulian for all, completely; and dûr, the Friulian for hard, stiff. The four forms of dûr were presented at sentence XV. So does deventâ conjugate in the present indicative: o deventi (I become); tu deventis (thou becomest); al devente (he becomes); e devente (she becomes); o deventìn (we become); o deventais (you become); a deventin (they become). On a final note, the student will note that the use of the tonic pronoun lui before al bute fûr marks the transition from the one subject (that of the spirit) to the other (that of the son).

Sentence XXVI.

Chel che al à orelis, che al scolti. (Matieu 13,9) The Friulian for ear is the feminine noun orele; its plural form is orelis (ears). Chel che al à orelis: he who has ears. See sentence III for notes regarding chel che (he who). Scoltâ is the Friulian for to listen. Consider the following: al scolte (he listens); che al scolti (let him listen): the former is the present indicative, whereas the latter is the present subjunctive, here employed to form a third-person singular imperative; the notes at sentence XVII present many other examples. Of scoltâ, the present indicative conjuagtes so: o scolti (I listen); tu scoltis (thou listenest); al scolte (he listens); e scolte (she listens); o scoltìn (we listen); o scoltais (you listen); a scoltin (they listen). The present subjunctive of the same conjugates so: che o scolti (that I may listen); che tu scoltis (that thou may listen); che al scolti (that he may listen); che e scolti (that she may listen); che o scoltìn (that we may listen); che o scoltais (that you may listen); che a scoltin (that they may listen). The following forms are also possible in the present subjunctive: che o scoltedi; che tu scoltedis; che al scoltedi; che e scoltedi; che o scoltedin; che o scoltedis; che a scoltedin. Study these imperatives: scolte (listen {thou}); scoltait (listen {you}); scoltìn (let us listen); che al scolti (let him listen); che e scolti (let her listen); che a scoltin (let them listen). Now the negated forms of the imperative: no sta scoltâ (listen {thou} not); no stait a scoltâ (listen {you} not); no stin a scoltâ (let us not listen); che nol scolti (let him not listen); che no scolti (let her not listen); che no scoltin (let them not listen). Related vocabulary: la bocje (mouth; plural, lis bocjis); il dint (tooth; plural, i dincj); la lenghe (tongue; plural, lis lenghis); il lavri (lip; plural, i lavris); il nâs (nose; plural, i nâs); il voli (eye; plural, i vôi); la muse (face; plural, lis musis); il cjâf (head; plural, i cjâfs).

Sentence XXVII.

La virtût di un arbul si ricognossile des sôs pomis. (Luche 6,44) Virtût is a feminine noun meaning virtue, and arbul is a masculine noun meaning tree. La virtût di un arbul is the Friulian for the virtue of a tree. Of arbul, the plural is arbui (trees). Examples: l’arbul al è muart (the tree is dead); i arbui a son muarts (the trees are dead). Muart (dead) takes four forms: muart (masculine singular); muarts (masculine plural); muarte (feminine singular); muartis (feminine plural). As for pome, this is a feminine noun meaning fruit, whose plural is pomis (fruits). Examples: cheste pome e je malmadure (this fruit is unripe); chestis pomis a son malmaduris (these fruits are unripe). Malmadûr (unripe) takes four forms: malmadûr (masculine singular); malmadûrs (masculine plural); malmadure (feminine singular); malmaduris (feminine plural). See sentence X for more examples of arbui and pomis. Ricognossi is Friulian for to recognise; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o ricognòs (I recognise); tu ricognossis (thou recognisest); al ricognòs (he recognises); e ricognòs (she recognises); o ricognossìn (we recognise); o ricognossês (you recognise); a ricognossin (they recognise). As for si ricognossile, this means one recognises it (which is to say that one recognises the virtue of a tree). It is formed by the fusion of si ricognòs (one recognises) and the feminine singular direct object le (it), put for the feminine singular virtût. When suffixing le to ricognòs, an i must be inserted therebefore, and the final s must be doubled to maintain its [s] sound, lest it be pronounced [z] between the two vowels. Translated literally: la virtût di un arbul (the virtue of a tree) si ricognossile des sôs pomis (one recognises it from its fruits); this can be better put in English so: a tree’s virtue is recognised by its fruits. Consider these final examples: cjatâ (to find); si cjate (one finds); chest esempli si cjatilu tal libri (this example is found in the book [this example, one finds it in the book]); chescj esemplis si cjatiju tal libri (these examples are found in the book [these examples, one finds them in the book]); cheste esplicazion si cjatile tal libri (this explanation is found in the book [this explanation, one finds it in the book]); chestis esplicazions si cjatilis tal libri (these explanations are found in the book [these explanations, one finds them in the book]).

Sentence XXVIII.

La tô fede ti à salvade; va in pâs. (Luche 7,50) Fede is a feminine noun meaning faith. Study the following: la mê fede (my faith); la tô fede (thy faith); la sô fede (his/her faith); la nestre fede (our faith); la vuestre fede (your faith); la lôr fede (their faith). Salvâ, the Friulian for to save, conjugates so in the recent past: o ài salvât (I have saved); tu âs salvât (thou hast saved); al à salvât (he/she/it has saved); o vin salvât (we have saved); o vês salvât (you have saved); a àn salvât (they have saved). Ti, as employed in our sentence under review, words of Jesus, is a direct object meaning thee; we understand at once that Jesus is speaking to a female by this, that the form salvade taken by the past participle is feminine singular, made to agree with the feminine singular ti. Consider the following: la tô fede ti à salvât (thy faith has saved thee; spoken to a male); la tô fede ti à salvade (thy faith has saved thee; spoken to a female). Salvât takes four forms, as is customary for a past participle: salvât (masculine singular); salvâts (masculine plural); salvade (feminine singular); salvadis (feminine plural). Consider moreover these examples, both plural: la vuestre fede us à salvâts (your faith has saved you; spoken to males, or to a pair or group wherein both genders are present); la vuestre fede us à salvadis (your faith has saved you; spoken to females). The Friulian for to go is lâ, whereas for peace it is the feminine noun pâs; the English to go in peace is therefore said in Friulian lâ in pâs. Of the irregular lâ, study the following imperatives: va (go {thou}); lait (go {you}); anìn (let us go); che al ledi (let him go); che e ledi (let her go); che a ledin (let them go). Negated, these are: no sta lâ (go {thou} not); no stait a lâ (go {you} not); no stin a lâ (let us not go); che nol ledi (let him not go); che no ledi (let her not go); che no ledin (let them not go).

Sentence XXIX.

Jo o ài mangjât prime che tu rivassis tu. (Gjenesi 27,33) Two verbs here appear: mangjâ (to eat) and rivâ (to arrive). Mangjâ is employed in the recent past, which conjugates so: o ài mangjât (I ate, I have eaten); tu âs mangjât (thou atest, thou hast eaten); al à mangjât (he ate, he has eaten); e à mangjât (she ate, she has eaten); o vin mangjât (we ate, we have eaten); o vês mangjât (you ate, you have eaten); a àn mangjât (they ate, they have eaten). Prime che (before) requires the use of the subjunctive. Consider these examples: (i) jo o ài di mangjâ prime che al rivi lui (I have to eat before he arrives); (ii) jo o varai di mangjâ prime che al rivi lui (I shall have to eat before he arrives); (iii) jo o vevi di mangjâ prime che al rivàs lui (I had to eat before he arrived). In the first and second examples, the present subjunctive is employed after prime che, given that the action of having to eat is set in either present or future time. In the third example, the imperfect subjunctive is employed after prime che, given that the action of having to eat is set in past time. Our sentence under review can be translated so: jo o ài mangjât prime che tu rivassis tu (I ate before thou arrivedest). Rivâ in the present subjunctive conjugates so: che o rivi (that I may arrive); che tu rivis (that thou may arrive); che al rivi (that he may arrive); che e rivi (that she may arrive); che o rivìn (that we may arrive); che o rivais (that you may arrive); che a rivin (that they may arrive). An alternative present subjunctive conjugation is possible: che o rivedi; che tu rivedis; che al rivedi; che e rivedi; che o rivedin; che o rivedis; che a rivedin. Rivâ in the imperfect subjunctive conjugates so: che o rivàs (that I might arrive); che tu rivassis (that thou might arrive); che al rivàs (that he might arrive); che e rivàs (that she might arrive); che o rivassin (that we might arrive); che o rivassis (that you might arrive); che a rivassin (that they might arrive). For comparison and future reference, so does rivâ conjugate in the present indicative: o rivi (I arrive); tu rivis (thou arrivest); al rive (he arrives); e rive (she arrives); o rivìn (we arrive); o rivais (you arrive); a rivin (they arrive).

Sentence XXX.

Salacor int sarà cincuante juscj in dute la citât. (Gjenesi 18,24) Abraham intercedes for Sodom, that it may be spared, if a few righteous men be found in it. Salacor means perhaps. As for int sarà, this is Friulian for there will be; it is the future equivalent of the present ind è (there is, there are), encountered at sentence XII. Both int and ind are contracted forms of indi: the contracted int is used when the following verb begins with a consonant; if the following verb begins with a vowel, the contraction takes the form ind. It is possible to employ the full indi in all cases, which is perceived to be a formal usage. Cincuante is the Friulian for fifty. Study the following: dîs (ten); vincj (twenty); trente (thirty); cuarante (forty); cincuante (fifty); sessante (sixty); setante (seventy); otante (eighty); novante (ninety); cent (hundred). Cuarante (forty) is also found under the alternative form corante. Just may used either adjectivally: just (just, righteous), or nominally: il just (just man, righteous man); i juscj (the just, the righteous). The four forms of the adjective just are: just (masculine singular); juscj (masculine plural); juste (feminine singular); justis (feminine plural). Adjectives forming their masculine plural like just include: trist (wicked; masculine plural, triscj); forest (foreign; masculine plural, forescj); sest (sixth; masculine plural, sescj); chest (this; masculine plural, chescj). Masculine nouns forming their plural in the same way include: il trist (wicked man; plural, i triscj); il forest (foreigner; plural, i forescj); il turist (tourist; plural, i turiscj); il fust (trunk {of tree}; plural, i fuscj). Citât is a feminine noun meaning city; in dute la citât, then, means in all the city. See sentence XXIII for notes regarding dut (all). Our sentence under review may be translated so from the Friulian: perhaps there will be fifty righteous in all the city.

Sentence XXXI.

I pastôrs a àn passonât sè ma lis mês pioris no lis àn passonadis. (Ezechiel 34,8) The Friulian for shepherd is the masculine noun pastôr. Passonâ is read to feed, to graze; it is customarily employed to refer to leading animals to pasture. The Friulian for the collective sheep is lis pioris; in the singular, une piore refers to a ewe. In our sentence, we encounter sè, meaning himself, herself, itself, themselves. I pastôrs a àn passonât sè: the shepherds have fed themselves. Study the following: lis mês pioris (my sheep); lis tôs pioris (thy sheep); lis sôs pioris (his/her sheep); lis nestris pioris (our sheep); lis vuestris pioris (your sheep); lis lôr pioris (their sheep). The student may wish to compare all the foregoing with a masculine plural noun: i miei trops (my flocks); i tiei trops (thy flocks); i siei trops (his/her flocks); i nestris trops (our flocks); i vuestris trops (your flocks); i lôr trops (their flocks). Of note is this, that trop is the Friulian for both flock and how many. In the latter sense, trop takes four forms: trop (masculine singular); trops (masculine plural); trope (feminine singular); tropis (feminine plural). The masculine plural trops in the sense of how many is pronounced without the p, whereas the plural trops in the sense of flocks is pronounced with it. Examples of trop in the sense of how many include: trop zucar àio di zontâ? (how much sugar have I to add?); trops agns âstu? (how old art thou? [how many years hast thou?]); trope vore varaio di fâ? (how much work shall I have to do?); tropis voltis varaio di fâlu? (how many times shall I have to do it?). Now, as to lis mês pioris no lis àn passonadis, this translates, after the manner of the Friulian, as: my sheep, they have not fed them. Consider such examples, taking note of the change of direct object pronoun (lu, ju, le, lis) and the modification of past participle (passonât, passonâts, passonade, passonadis): il gno trop no lu àn passonât (my flock, they have not fed it); i miei trops no ju àn passonâts (my flocks, they have not fed them); chê bestie no le àn passonade (that animal, they have not fed it); chês bestiis no lis àn passonadis (those animals, they have not fed them).

Sentence XXXII.

Chest al è sucedût par che si colmàs ce che al veve nunziât il profete. (Matieu 21,4) Chest al è sucedût is the Friulian not only for this has come to pass (or more formally this is come to pass), but also this came to pass; this latter reading is the appropriate one in the context of this sentence. Other possible contextual readings include: this took place, this occurred, this happened. See sentence XXI for additional notes related to sucedi. Par che is the Friulian for {in order} that; this usage must be followed by the subjunctive: given that chest al è sucedût sets our sentence in past time, par che must be followed by the imperfect subjunctive: si colmàs. Colmâsi is a reflexive usage meaning to be fulfilled; it would be well for the student to learn such verb forms thereof: si colme (it is being fulfilled); si colmave (it was being fulfilled); si colmà (it was fulfilled); si colmarà (it will be fulfilled); si colmarès (it would be fulfilled); si è colmât (it has been fulfilled); si jere colmât (it had been fulfilled); si sarà colmât (it will be fulfilled); si sarès colmât (it would have been fulfilled); che si colmi, che si colmedi (that it may be fulfilled); che si colmàs (that it might be fulfilled). Consider the difference between these two utterances: chest al sucêt par che si colmi (this comes to pass that it may be fulfilled); chest al è sucedût par che si colmàs (this came to pass that it might be fulfilled). Ce che means that which, what. Nunziâ is the Friulian for to announce, so that al veve nunziât means he had announced. Profete is a masculine noun meaning prophet. So may our sentence under review be translated: Chest al è sucedût (this came to pass) par che si colmàs (that it might be fulfilled) ce che al veve nunziât il profete (that which the prophet had announced).

Sentence XXXIII.

E chei chi si ’nt laran tal cjastic eterni, i juscj invezit a la vite eterne. (Matieu 25,46) Chei chi (literally, ‘those here’) is read these {ones}; it used to mark opposition with some other group of people or things. Other vocabulary to be learnt: lâsint (to go away, to go/head off, to leave, to depart); il cjastic (punishment); eterni (eternal); il just (just man, righteous man); i juscj (the just, the righteous); invezit (whereas, rather); la vite (life). Of eterni, the four forms are: eterni (masculine singular); eternis (masculine plural); eterne (feminine singular); eternis (feminine plural). Now, as to lâsint, the verb portion thereof conjugates in exactly the same manner as (to go); the student need only be additionally mindful of this, that the correct reflexive pronoun be employed, as well as the correct contraction of indi (which is to say, either ’nt or ’nd). Lâsint may take various readings in English (some common ones were provided above in the vocabulary list), but for the sake of simplicity, only the reading to go away will be employed in the following conjugations: (present indicative) mi ’nt voi (I go away); tu ti ’nt vâs (thou goest away); si ’nt va (he/she/it goes away); si ’nt lin (we go away); si ’nt lais (you go away); si ’nt van (they go away); (imperfect) mi ’nt levi (I was going away); tu ti ’nt levis (thou wast going away); si ’nt leve (he/she/it was going away); si ’nt levin (we were going away); si ’nt levis (you were going away); si ’nt levin (they were going away); (simple past) mi ’nt lei (I went away); tu ti ’nt leris (thou wentest away); si ’nt lè (he/she/it went away); si ’nt lerin (we went away); si ’nt leris (you went away); si ’nt lerin (they went away); (simple future) mi ’nt larai (I shall go away); tu ti ’nt larâs (thou wilt go away); si ’nt larà (he/she/it will go away); si ’nt larìn (we shall go away); si ’nt larês (you will go away); si ’nt laran (they will go away); (present conditional) mi ’nt larès (I should go away); tu ti ’nt laressis (thou wouldest go away); si ’nt larès (he/she/it would go away); si ’nt laressin (we should go away); si ’nt laressis (you would go away); si ’nt laressin (they would go away); (present subjunctive) che mi ’nt ledi (that I may go away); che ti ’nt ledi (that thou may go away); che si ’nt ledi (that he/she/it may go away); che si ’nt ledin (that we may go away); che si ’nt ledis (that you may go away); che si ’nt ledin (that they may go away); (imperfect subjunctive) che mi ’nt les (that I might go away); che ti ’nt lessis (that thou might go away); che si ’nt les (that he/she/it might go away); che si ’nt lessin (that we might go away); che si ’nt lessis (that you might go away); che si ’nt lessin (that they might go away); (recent past) mi ’nt soi lât/lade (I have gone away); tu ti ’nt sês lât/lade (thou hast gone away); si ’nd è lât/lade (he/she has gone away); si ’nt sin lâts/ladis (we have gone away); si ’nt sês lâts/ladis (you have gone away); si ’nt son lâts/ladis (they have gone away). By replacing the auxiliaries of the recent past (soi, sês, è, sin, sês, son) with jeri, jeris, jere, jerin, jeris, jerin, the Friulian equivalent of the past perfect is obtained (for example, si ’nd jere lât [he had gone away]); whereas by replacing them with sarai, sarâs, sarà, sarìn, sarês, saran, obtained is the Friulian equivalent of the future perfect (for example, si ’nt sarà lât [he will have gone away]). Found in the Bible are these imperatives: vatint (go {thou} away); laitsint (go {you} away). Our sentence under review may be so translated: E chei chi si ’nt laran (and these will go away) tal cjastic eterni (into eternal punishment), i juscj invezit (whereas the righteous) a la vite eterne (unto eternal life).

Sentence XXXIV.

La int cui disie che jo o sedi? (Marc 8,27) The Friulian for people is the feminine singular noun int; it takes a verb in the feminine of the third-person singular, which is to say that it behaves like the Friulian equivalent of she, not they. La int, depending on the context wherein it is used, can take either the reading the people or simply people. Examples: la int e je ({the} people are); la int e à ({the} people have); la int e dîs ({the} people say); la int e vûl ({the} people want); o cjali la int che e passe (I am watching the people who are passing by). La int as used in this question, words of Jesus, takes the reading people (rather than the people), for Jesus here asks about people in general. The present indicative conjugation of (to say) was presented at sentence VIII. Consider examples: e dîs (she says); disie? (says she?); ce disie? (what says she?); cui disie? (whom says she?); parcè disie? (why says she?); cemût disie? (how says she?). Cui is the Friulian for both who and whom; our sentence calls for the English reading whom. The student will recognise che jo o sedi as being the first-person singular, present subjunctive of jessi (to be); see book I, lesson XLV. This question put by Jesus employs the Friulian subjunctive for this reason, that speculation in involved; the subjunctive may here be avoided in the English, with the question taking such translation: whom say people that I am?; however, if we were to carry over the Friulian use of the subjunctive into the English, then: whom say people that I be? (or whom say people that I may be?). More examples of the sort: ma vualtris cui disêso che jo o sedi? (but you, whom say you that I am?); e chel om cui disial che jo o sedi? (and whom says that man that I am?).

Sentence XXXV.

Ma lui ur intimà di no fevelâ sul so cont cun nissun. (Marc 8,30) Intimâ is the Friulian for to intimate, so that ma lui ur intimà translates as but he intimated to them. Ur is an indirect object pronoun meaning to them. Consider all the following: lui mi intimà (he intimated to me); lui ti intimà (he intimated to thee); lui i intimà (he intimated to him/her); lui nus intimà (he intimated to us); lui us intimà (he intimated to you); lui ur intimà (he intimated to them). The simple past of intimâ, employed in our sentence under review, conjugates thus: o intimai (I intimated); tu intimaris (thou intimatedest); al intimà (he intimated); e intimà (she intimated); o intimarin (we intimated); o intimaris (you intimated); a intimarin (they intimated). Fevelâ is the Friulian for to speak; no fevelâ, then, means not to speak. As for sul so cont, this translates as on his account, the meaning whereof is about him, with regard to him. Cont is a masculine noun meaning account; il so cont means his account. Sul is the contraction of su (on) and the masculine singular definite article il, so that su + il so cont = sul so cont. Cun nissun means with no one, not with anyone. Translated from the Friulian: Ma lui ur intimà (but he intimated to them) di no fevelâ sul so cont cun nissun (not to speak on his account with anyone). Of cun nissun, a number of supplementary examples may be given: no ài fevelât cun nissun (I have not spoken with anyone); no fevelin mai cun nissun (they never speak with anyone); no fasarai cheste vore cun nissun (I shall not do this work with anyone).

Sentence XXXVI.

No isal propit par chest che o sês fûr di strade; parcè che no cognossês ni lis Scrituris ni la potence di Diu? (Marc 12,24) To be fûr di strade (literally, off the way) is to be gone astray; strade is a feminine noun meaning way, street. Propit is read squarely, precisely. As for par chest, this translates literally as for this, the meaning whereof is for this reason. Jesus asks: no isal propit par chest che o sês fûr di strade (is it not squarely for this that you are gone astray). No isal is, of course, the interrogative of nol è (it is not), this latter being the negation of al è (it is). Consider the following: al è par chest (it is for this); nol è par chest (it is not for this); isal par chest? (is it for this?); no isal par chest? (is it not for this?). Cognossi is the Friulian for to know, in the sense of to be acquainted with, to be familiar with; its present indicative conjugation was presented at sentence XI. The feminine noun scripture is the Friulian for scripture, writing. Potence is also a feminine noun; it means power. The second part of the question of Jesus translates so: parcè che no cognossês ni lis Scrituris ni la potence di Diu? (because you know neither the Scriptures nor the power of God?). The student will note the use of no… ni… ni…, meaning neither… nor; supplementary examples thereof: no vuelin ni lei ni scrivi (they want neither to read nor to write); no ài ni fan ni sêt (I am neither hungry nor thirsty [I have neither hunger nor thirst]); no àn ni i bêçs ni i lavoradôrs (they have neither the money nor the workers).

Sentence XXXVII.

Il savi al à il cûr a la sô diestre, il stupit a la sô çampe. (Qoelet 10,2) The masculine noun savi is the Friulian for wise man, whereas the masculine noun stupit is the Friulian for fool. Examples: la bocje dal savi (the mouth of the wise man); i lavris dal stupit (the lips of the fool). Savi and stupit can also be employed as adjectives, which take four forms: savi, stupit (masculine singular); savis, stupits (masculine plural); savie, stupide (feminine singular); saviis, stupidis (feminine plural). Examples: un zûc stupit (a foolish game, a stupid game); une idee stupide (a foolish idea, a stupid idea); peraulis saviis (wise words). For heart, the Friulian is the masculine noun cûr. As for hand, the Friulian is the feminine noun man; however, the right hand and the left hand are identified specifically by the names la diestre and la çampe, respectively. These nouns are drawn from the adjectives diestri (right) and çamp (left), which take four forms: diestri, çamp (masculine singular); diestris, çamps (masculine plural); diestre, çampe (feminine singular); diestris, çampis (feminine plural). The name of the right hand and the left hand take a feminine form in Friulian for this reason, that the feminine noun man (hand) is understood: la {man} diestre (the right {hand}); la {man} çampe (the left {hand}). It is moreover possible to employ the full la man diestre and la man çampe, without omitting man. This sentence can be translated thus: Il savi al à il cûr a la sô diestre (the wise man has his heart at his right hand), il stupit a la sô çampe (the fool at his left). The student will note that the Friulian, in point of fact, employs il cûr (the heart), rather than il so cûr (his heart); however, the Friulian definite article is often seen to bear the force of a possessive adjective, especially in the matter of body parts, and its present omission is also stylistically preferable, given that so/sô would otherwise thrice appear in the sentence. On a final note, the adjective diestri knows the following variants in Friulian: dret and gjestri, which, of course, take four forms: dret, gjestri (masculine singular); drets, gjestris (masculine plural); drete, gjestre (feminine singular); dretis, gjestris (feminine plural). It is for this reason that the right hand, in addition to la diestre, may also be identified by the following names: la drete or la gjestre.

Sentence XXXVIII.

Fi, se tu i vuelis ben a di un compagn, prime metilu a lis provis e podopo cjolital par amì (Sapience di Achikar 17) The Friulian for son and daughter is, respectively, il fi and la fie; the plural forms are i fîs (sons) and lis fiis (daughters). Volê ben means to love; the student will note that this expression takes an indirect object; for instance, the Friulian for I love Jacob is jo i vuei ben a Jacop, where i means unto him and a Jacop means unto Jacob. The present indicative of volê was presented at sentence XIII. The masculine noun compagn is the Friulian for companion. The first half of this sentence is understood so: fi, se tu i vuelis ben a di un compagn (son, if thou love a companion). It will be noted that di is inserted between a and un by reason of euphony; to be clear, a di un compagn means unto a companion, this indirect usage being employed for the reason stated above, that volê ben takes an indirect object (to love someone: volêi ben a di un). Of a di un, a few more examples: a di un ciert pont (to a certain point); di une lenghe a di une altre (from one language to another); chel om no i fasarès mâl a di une moscje (that man would not hurt a fly). In the second half of the sentence, we find the expression meti a lis provis, meaning to put to the proof; however, it will be noted that the Friulian literally employs the plural proofs, given that provis is the plural of the feminine noun prove (proof, trial, test). Of meti (to put), the second-person singular imperative is met; the Friulian for put {thou} him is therefore metilu, where an i is inserted between met (put {thou}) and lu (him) by reason of euphony. Of meti, learn these imperatives: met (put {thou}; second-person singular); metêt (put {you}; second-person plural); metìn (let us put; first-person plural). On either side of metilu a lis provis are found prime and podopo, which are taken as first and then, respectively. The Friulian for friend is un amì (plural, i amîs); the feminine is une amie (plural, lis amiis). As for cjoli, this is the Friulian for to take; the reflexive cjolisi, then, means to take unto oneself. In this way, cjolisi par amì means to take unto oneself for friend (or to take unto oneself as a friend). In our sentence, we encounter cjolital par amì, which employs the second-person singular imperative: take him unto thyself for friend. Cjolital is the contraction of cjol (take {thou}) + ti (unto thyself) + lu (him), with an i inserted between cjol and tal (= ti + lu) by reason of euphony. Of cjoli, learn these imperatives: cjol (take {thou}; second-person singular); cjolêt (take {you}; second-person plural); cjolìn (let us take; first-person plural). The second half of this sentence is understood so: prime metilu a lis provis e podopo cjolital par amì (first put him to the proof and then take him unto thyself for friend).

Sentence XXXIX.

Ind è che a tasin parcè che a àn sintiment. (Fi di Sirac 20,1) Ind è che is read there are those who. For more notes related to ind è, see sentence XII. Tasê is the Friulian for to keep quiet; so does it conjugate in the present indicative: o tâs (I keep quiet); tu tasis (thou keepest quiet); al tâs (he keeps quiet); e tâs (she keeps quiet); o tasìn (we keep quiet); o tasês (you keep quiet); a tasin (they keep quiet). Vê sintiment is the Friulian for to have/possess wisdom, where sintiment (wisdom) is a masculine noun. A àn sintiment, then, means they possess wisdom. Ind è che a tasin parcè che a àn sintiment: there are those who keep quiet because they possess wisdom. Of sintiment, a number of supplementary examples: un om plen di sintiment (a man full of wisdom); un om cence sintiment (a man without wisdom); fevelâ cun grant sintiment (to speak with great wisdom); disserni cun sintiment (to discern with wisdom); rispuindi cun sintiment (to respond with wisdom). Additional examples of ind è che may also be given: ind è che a cirin glorie e a cjatin umiliazion (there are those who seek glory and find humiliation); ind è che a comprin tante robe cul pôc, però le pain siet voltis (there are those who buy much for little but pay for it sevenfold). From the two foregoing examples, the following vocabulary ought to be learnt: cirî (to seek, to look for); la glorie (glory); cjatâ (to find); la umiliazion (humiliation); comprâ tante robe (to buy much); comprâ cul pôc (to buy for little); però (but); paiâ (to pay {for}); siet (seven); la volte (time); siet voltis (seven times, sevenfold). Le pain means they pay for it, where the feminine singular le here agrees in gender and number with the feminine singular tante robe (literally, much matter, much stuff). Of paiâ, study the present indicative: o pai (I pay); tu pais (thou payest); al paie (he pays); e paie (she pays); o paìn (we pay); o paiais (you pay); a pain (they pay). Tant (much, many) takes four different forms: tant (masculine singular); tancj (masculine plural); tante (feminine singular); tantis (feminine plural). Examples: tant timp (much time); tancj miluçs (many apples); tante fede in Diu (much faith in God); tantis voltis (many times).

Sentence XL.

Rancôr e rabie a son dôs robatis, ma il pecjadôr si sint fuart li. (Fi di Sirac 27,30) The masculine noun rancôr is the Friulian for rancour, resentment, whereas the feminine noun rabie is the Friulian for wrath, anger. Now, whereas the feminine noun robe means thing, the feminine noun robate means wicked thing. The -at (masculine) and -ate (feminine) suffixes convey wickedness, badness: robe – robate (thing – wicked thing); frut – frutat (boy – naughty boy); frute – frutate (girl – naughty girl); om – omenat (man – boor). In the narration of Noah and the flood, we read that man had nothing but evil thoughts: al masanave dome robatis (he mulled only wicked things), where masanâ means to mull, to turn over in one’s mind, to ruminate. For two, Friulian has both a masculine and feminine form: doi (masculine) and dôs (feminine). Given that robatis is a feminine noun, the Friulian for two wicked things is dôs robatis. Other examples: doi cjastics (two punishments); doi stupits (two fools); dôs vueris (two wars); dôs leçs (two laws). Rancôr e rabie a son dôs robatis: rancour and wrath are two wicked things. In the second half of the sentence, such vocabulary appears: ma (but); il pecjadôr (sinner); sintîsi (to feel); fuart (strong); li (there). Of sintîsi, the present indicative conjugates so: mi sint (I feel); ti sintis (thou feelest); si sint (he/she/it feels); si sintìn (we feel); si sintîs (you feel); si sintin (they feel). Ma il pecjadôr si sint fuart li: but the sinner feels strong there. Of sintîsi, supplementary examples: mi sint strac (I feel tired; male); mi sint strache (I feel tired; female); si sint obleât a fâlu (he feels obligated to do it); si sint obleade a tornâ (she feels obligated to return); si sint avilît (he feels sad); si sint avilide (she feels sad).

Sentence XLI.

Meninusai fûr, che o vin voe di cognossiju. (Gjenesi 19,5) In the narration of Sodom, Lot extends his hospitality to two strangers; the men of the city then come to Lot and pronounce these words to him. Menâ is the Friulian for to lead, whereas menâ fûr means to lead forth. Study these imperatives: mene (lead {thou}; second-person singular); menait (lead {you}; second-person plural); menìn (let us lead; first-person plural). In the words of the Sodomites, we encounter the second-person singular imperative meninusai, which is the contraction of mene (lead {thou}) + nus (unto us) + ju (them; masculine plural), which is to say that meninusai fûr means lead them forth unto us. When nusai (= nus + ju) is suffixed to the second-person singular imperative mene, the final e of mene must change to i. Consider the following examples for study purposes, all second-person singular imperatives: meninusal fûr (lead him forth unto us); meninusai fûr (lead them [males or both genders] forth unto us); meninuse fûr (lead her forth unto us); meninuses fûr (lead them [females] forth unto us). Were the foregoing examples to be converted into second-person plural imperatives, they would instead take such forms: menaitnusal fûr; menaitnusai fûr; menaitnuse fûr; menaitnuses fûr. More examples yet, all second-person singular: menimal fûr (lead him forth unto me); menimai fûr (lead them [males or both genders] forth unto me); menime fûr (lead her forth unto me); menimes fûr (lead them [females] forth unto me). Vê voie di (alternative form vê voe di) means to feel like, to be keen, to want. Cognossi is the Friulian for to know; cognossiju, then, means to know them, where ju here refers to the strangers whom Lot has taken in. In this context, cognossi is employed in the sense of engaging in carnal relations, which is to say, to know carnally. As for che, it takes in this sentence the sense of for, because. Meninusai fûr, che o vin voe di cognossiju: lead them forth unto us, for we want to know them.

Sentence XLII.

Al è un don di Diu chel di spiegâ i siums, ma contaitmal istès. (Gjenesi 40,8) The chief butler and the chief baker of the king of Egypt have a dream, and Joseph by these words tells them to recount it to him. Un don di Diu is the Friulian for a gift of God. Spiegâ means to explain; however, in this context of dreams, we can take it as meaning to interpret. The Friulian for dream is the masculine noun sium. Al è un don di Diu chel di spiegâ i siums: it is a gift of God that of interpreting dreams. Contâ is the Friulian for to recount, to relate, to tell; study these imperative forms thereof: conte (recount {thou}; second-person singular); contait (recount {you}; second-person plural); contìn (let us recount; first-person plural). In the words of Joseph, we find contaitmal, which is the contraction of the second-person plural imperative contait (recount {you}) + mi (unto me) + lu (it), where the masculine singular lu is put for the masculine singular sium (before these words of Joseph, the chief butler and the chief baker had just said to him: o vin fat un sium [we have had a dream; literally, we have made a dream]). Contaitmal, then, is a second-person plural imperative meaning recount it to me, relate it to me. Istès means all the same, anyhow. Ma contaitmal istès: but recount it to me all the same. Now, given that Joseph speaks these words to more than one person, the second-person plural imperative is used; however, if he had spoken them to just the one of the two men, recourse to the second-person singular imperative would have instead been made: conte + mi + lu, which produces contimal, where the final e of the second-person singular conte must change to i before the suffixing of mal (= mi + lu). Consider these pairs: contimal – contaitmal (recount {thou} it to me – recount {you} it to me); mostrimal – mostraitmal (show {thou} it to me – show {you} it to me); passimal – passaitmal (pass {thou} it to me – pass {you} it to me); mandimal – mandaitmal (send {thou} it to me – send {you} it to me); puartimal – puartaitmal (bring {thou} it to me – bring {you} it to me). Vocabulary: mostrâ (to show); passâ (to pass); mandâ (to send); puartâ (to bring).

Sentence XLIII.

Cjolêt une zumiele di cjalin di fornâs e Mosè che lu buti par aiar in presince dal faraon. (Esodo 9,8) The Lord speaks these words to Moses and Aaron. Cjoli is Friulian for to take; study the following imperatives: cjol (take {thou}; second-person singular); cjolêt (take {you}; second-person plural); cjolìn (let us take; first-person plural). Also: che al cjoli/cjoledi (let him take); che e cjoli/cjoledi (let her take); che a cjolin/cjoledin (let them take). In the words of the Lord, we find the second-person plural cjolêt, for it is both Moses and Aaron who are addressed. The feminine noun zumiele means handful; the masculine noun cjalin means soot; and the feminine noun fornâs means furnace. Cjolêt une zumiele di cjalin di fornâs: take a handful of furnace soot. Butâ is the Friulian for to cast; study the following imperatives: bute (cast {thou}; second-person singular); butait (cast {you}; second-person plural); butìn (let us cast; first-person plural). Also: che al buti/butedi (let him cast); che e buti/butedi (let her cast); che a butin/butedin (let them cast). Aiar is a masculine noun meaning air; as for par aiar, this means into the air. Presince is a feminine noun meaning presence; faraon is a masculine noun meaning pharaoh. E Mose che lu buti par aiar in presince dal faraon: and let Moses cast it into the air in Pharaoh’s presence. Study the following: Mosè al bute – Mosè lu bute – Mosè che lu buti/butedi (Moses casts – Moses casts it – let Moses cast it); Mosè al fevele – Mosè lu fevele – Mosè che lu feveli/feveledi (Moses speaks – Moses speaks it – let Moses speak it); Mosè al alce – Mosè lu alce – Mosè che lu alci/alcedi (Moses lifts – Moses lifts it – let Moses lift it). For the student’s information and reference, so does cjoli conjugate in the present indicative: o cjol (I take); tu cjolis (thou takest); al cjol (he takes); e cjol (she takes); o cjolìn (we take); o cjolês (you take); a cjolin (they take). The student will note that cjoli is not the only verb in Friulian whose meaning is to take; another is cjapâ.

Sentence XLIV.

Josef al fasè un sium e ur al contà ai siei fradis. (Gjenesi 37,5) Fâ un sium (literally, to make a dream) is the Friulian for to have a dream. Of Joseph, we read: Josef al fasè un sium (Joseph had a dream). This can also be expressed using the recent past, which is the preferred tense for colloquial conversation: Josef al à fat un sium. Other examples using the recent past: o ài fat un sium (I had a dream, I have had a dream); la gnot passade o ài fat un brut sium (last night I had a bad dream, last night I had a nightmare); scolte ce sium che o ài fat (listen {thou} to the dream I have had); scoltait ce sium che o ài fat (listen {you} to the dream I have had). Contâ is the Friulian for to recount, to relate, to tell; in the simple past, it takes such conjugation: o contai (I recounted); tu contaris (thou recountedest); al contà (he recounted); e contà (she recounted); o contarin (we recounted); o contaris (you recounted); a contarin (they recounted). That which Joseph recounted was his dream: al contà il sium (he recounted the dream) > lu contà (he recounted it). He recounted it to his brethren: ur contà il sium ai siei fradis (he recounted the dream to his brethren) > ur al contà ai siei fradis (he recounted it to his brethren). Ur al is the form taken by ur (unto them) + lu (it; masculine singular). Learn these forms: ur al (= ur + masculine singular lu); ur ai (= ur + masculine plural ju); ur e (= ur + feminine singular le); ur es (= ur + feminine plural lis). Consider the following supplementary examples: il probleme, ur al contarai ai oms (the problem, I shall recount it to the men); i problemis, ur ai contarai ai oms (the problems, I shall recount them to the men); la situazion, ur e contarai ai oms (the situation, I shall recount it to the men); lis obiezions, ur es contarai ai oms (the objections, I shall recount them to the men). Of note is that the Friulian for his/her brethren is i siei fradis; however, in the singular, the definite article is omitted: so fradi (his/her brother). Compare: ur al contarà ai siei fradis (he/she will recount it to his/her brethren); jal contarà a so fradi (he/she will recount it to his/her brother).

Sentence XLV.

Un si gjavave il sandul e jal dave a di chel altri. (Rut 4,7) On the former manner in Israel between kinsmen, that if a man yielded his right to another the grant might be sure. Gjavâ is the Friulian for to remove; the reflexive gjavâsi means to remove from oneself. Sandul is a masculine noun meaning sandal, wherefore gjavâsi il sandul translates literally as to remove from oneself the sandal, better expressed in English as to remove one’s sandal. As employed in this sentence, the masculine un (one) may be read in English a man. Si gjavave (he was removing from himself, he used to remove from himself) employs the imperfect indicative; other examples of verbs in this tense: al fevelave (he was speaking, he used to speak); al restave (he was staying, he used to stay); al pensave (he was thinking, he used to think). Taking now the first part of our sentence: un si gjavave il sandul (a man used to remove his sandal; or after the Friulian manner: one used to remove from himself the sandal). In the second half of the sentence, we encounter another instance of the imperfect indicative: al dave (he was giving, he used to give). Jal is the contraction of i (unto him) + lu (it; masculine singular, put for il sandul). Consider: al dave (he used to give); lu dave (he used to give it); i dave (he used to give to him); jal dave (he used to give it to him); jal dave a di chel altri (he used to give it to the other). If the sentence now be taken as a whole, we read so: a man used to remove his sandal and give it to the other. It is also possible to translate the Friulian imperfect indicative by way of would; it will be noted that this would is that of the habitual past and not that of the conditional, so that the following is also possible: a man would remove his sandal and give to the other. Of a di chel altri, a number of supplementary examples: di un mâr a di chel altri (from one sea to the other); di une lenghe a di chê altre (from one language to the other); di une bande a di chê altre (from one side to the other). The different forms of the adjective altri (other) are as follows: altri (masculine singular); altris (masculine plural); altre (feminine singular); altris (feminine plural). Of sandul, the plural is sandui (sandals): gjavâsi i sandui (to remove one’s sandals); gjavâsi lis scarpis (to remove one’s shoes); gjavâsi il cjapiel (to remove one’s hat); si è gjavât il capot (he removed his coat, he took off his coat).

Sentence XLVI.

Se tu sês Fi di Diu, dîs che chestis pieris a deventin pan. (Matieu 4,3) Such were the words spoken of the devil (il diaul) to Christ during his temptation. Se tu sês Fi di Diu: if thou be the Son of God. In the second half of the devil’s words is the second-person singular imperative dîs (say {thou}). Learn also: disêt (say {you}; second-person plural); disìn (let us say; first-person plural). Piere is a feminine noun meaning stone; its plural is pieris (stones). Deventâ is the Friulian for to become. Pan is a masculine noun meaning bread. Dîs che chestis pieris a deventin pan: say that these stones become bread; as in, say {such command} that these stones {may} become bread. In the words of the devil, a deventin is the third-person plural of the present subjunctive, and not the identically formed third-person plural of the present indicative. Of deventâ, first the present indicative: o deventi (I become); tu deventis (thou becomest); al devente (he becomes); e devente (she becomes); o deventìn (we become); o deventais (you become); a deventin (they become). Now the present subjunctive: che o deventi (that I may become); che tu deventis (that thou may become); che al deventi (that he may become); che e deventi (that she may become); che o deventìn (that we may become); che o deventais (that you may become); che a deventin (that they may become). An alternative present subjunctive conjugation exists (che o deventedi, che tu deventedis, che al deventedi, che e deventedi, che o deventedin, che o deventedis, che a deventedin); if it be used, then the employment of the subjunctive in this sentence is at once apparent: Se tu sês Fi di Diu, dîs che chestis pieris a deventedin pan. For the purpose of illustration, consider the singular in these examples: cheste piere e devente pan (this stone becomes bread); dîs che cheste piere e deventi/deventedi pan (say that this stone become bread).

Sentence XLVII.

A jerin daûr a butâ lis rêts tal mâr; di fat a jerin pescjadôrs. (Matieu 4,18) Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, sees two brethren: Simon clamât Pieri (Simon called Peter) and Andree so fradi (Andrew his brother); of them, we read that they were fishermen: a jerin pescjadôrs. The masculine noun pescjadôr (fisherman) is, unsurprisingly, related to the Friulian for fish, which is the masculine noun pes. Examples: la trute e je un pes di flum (the trout is a river fish); nadâ come un pes (to swim like a fish); il pes grant al mangje il pes piçul (the big fish eats the little fish); i pes dal mâr (the fish{es} of the sea). Jessi daûr a (+ infinitive) is Friulian for to be busy {doing something}; it is used to insist on the ongoing nature of an action; for instance, i oms a jerin daûr a fevelâ means the men were busy speaking; or i carabinîrs a son daûr a indagâ means the carabinieri are busy investigating. The Friulian for net is the feminine noun rêt; for sea, the Friulian is the masculine noun mâr. Butâ means to cast, to throw. As employed in our sentence under review, di fat is read for. A jerin daûr a butâ lis rêts tal mâr; di fat a jerin pescjadôrs: they were busy casting nets into the sea, for they were fishermen. Above, mention was made of the adjective piçul (little, small); its four different forms are as follows: piçul (masculine singular); piçui (masculine plural); piçule (feminine singular); piçulis (feminine plural).

Sentence XLVIII.

Damal a mi e jo tal tornarai a puartâ indaûr. (Gjenesi 42,37) Reuben pleads with his father Jacob that it might be permitted him to take his brother Benjamin down to Egypt. Consider: puartâ (to bring); puartâ indâur (to bring back); tornâ a puartâ indaûr (to bring back again). The customary translation of tornâ is to return, to go/come back (for instance, al è tornât tal so paîs [he returned to his village]), but when tornâ is followed by a and an infinitive, it takes on the sense of again. Example: whereas means to do, tornâ a fâ means to do again, to redo. Another example: cjaminâ (to walk); par podê tornâ a cjaminâ (in order to be able to walk again). Yet another: plovi (to rain); al à tornât a plovi (it started to rain again). Of dâ, know these imperative forms: da (give {thou}; second-person singular); dait (give {you}; second-person plural); dìn (let us give; first-person plural). In the words of Reuben, we find the second-person singular imperative damal, which is such contraction: da (give {thou}) + mi (unto me) + lu (him; put for Benjamin). Damal a mi, where a mi (unto me) is additionally employed for emphasis, means give him to me. In the second half of Reuben’s words, tal is the contraction of ti (unto thee) + lu (him; again put for Benjamin). Tornâ is here found in the simple future: o tornarai a puartâ indaûr (I shall bring back again); tu tornarâs a puartâ indaûr (thou wilt bring back again); al tornarà a puartâ indaûr (he will bring back again); e tornarà a puartâ indaûr (she will bring back again); o tornarìn a puartâ indaûr (we shall bring back again); o tornarês a puartâ indaûr (you will bring back again); a tornaran a puartâ indaûr (they will bring back again). Reuben’s promise: e jo tal tornarai a puartâ indaûr (and I shall bring him back to thee again).

Sentence XLIX.

A son vincj agns che o soi cun te. (Gjenesi 31,38) So says Jacob to Laban. The Friulian for year is the masculine noun an. Examples: al è plui di un an che no lu viôt (it has been more than a year since I have seen him); ca di un an (in a year from now); si viodarìn ca di un an (we shall see one another in a year from now); chest an (this year); l’an che al ven (the coming year, next year); l’an passât (last year); tal an 200 p.d.C. [tal an dusinte prin di Crist] (in the year 200 B.C.); tal an 300 d.d.C. [tal an tresinte daspò di Crist] (in the year 300 A.D.). The plural of an is the irregular agns, which sounds like the English word pints without the p. Examples: dîs agns (ten years); vincj agns (twenty years); a son dîs agns (it has been ten years); a son vincj agns (it has been twenty years); trops agns âstu? (how old art thou? [how many years hast thou?]; trops is pronounced without the p); i agns cincuante (the {nineteen-}fifties [the years fifty]); vuê mê sûr e finìs cuindis agns (today is my sister’s fifteenth birthday; see book I, lesson XV regarding the usage finî i agns). The student will note the use of the present indicative and third-person plural a son (they are) in the Friulian a son vincj agns che… (they are twenty years that…, twenty years are they that…); the present indicative is employed for this reason, that the years are not yet come to completion, whereas the third-person plural agrees in number with vincj. More examples: a son trê dîs che… (it has been three days that… [three days are they that…]); al è un an che… (it has been one year that… [one year is it that…]); al è un mês che… (it has been one month that… [one month is it that…]); e je une setemane che… (it has been one week that… [one week is it that…]); a son dôs setemanis che… (it has been two weeks that… [two weeks are they that…]). A son vincj agns che o soi cun te: it has been twenty years that I have been with thee (or better stylistically in English: I have been with thee for twenty years now; and after the Friulian manner, for illustrative purposes: twenty years are they that I am with thee). The present indicative is again employed with o soi (I am), given that Jacob was still with Laban when his words were pronounced.

Sentence L.

O vês sintût che al è stât dit: Voli par voli e dint par dint. (Matieu 5,38) Sintî is the Friulian for to hear, with sintût for past participle; it is found in these words of Jesus in the recent past: o vês sintût (you have heard, you heard). Here is the full conjugation of sintî in the recent past: o ài sintût (I have heard, I heard); tu âs sintût (thou hast heard, thou heardest); al à sintût (he has heard, he heard); e à sintût (she has heard, she heard); o vin sintût (we have heard, we heard); o vês sintût (you have heard, you heard); a àn sintût (you have heard, you heard). For future reference of the student, here is how sintî conjugates in the present indicative: o sint (I hear); tu sintis (thou hearest); al sint (he hears); e sint (she hears); o sintìn (we hear); o sintîs (you hear); a sintin (they hear). As for dî, this is the Friulian for to say; it is found in passive, recent past form in the words of Jesus: al è stât dit (it has been said, it was said). Similar supplementary examples: al è stat fat (it has been done, it was done); al è stât creât (it has been created, it was created); al è stât copât (he has been killed, he was killed); e à stade copade (she has been killed, she was killed); a son stâts copâts (they have been killed, they were killed; males only or both genders); a son stadis copadis (they have been killed, they were killed; females only). The masculine noun voli means eye, whereas the masculine noun dint means tooth; these take the following plural forms: vôi (eyes), dincj (teeth). These words of Jesus may be translated so from the Friulian: O vês sintût (you have heard [or: you heard]) che al è stât dit (that it has been said [or: that it was said]): Voli par voli (eye for eye) e dint par dint (and tooth for tooth).

Sentence LI.

Di fat se ur volês ben dome a di chei che us vuelin ben, ce ricompense varessiso di vê? (Matieu 5,46) Di fat is read for. Volê ben (to love) takes an indirect object: volêi ben a di un (to love someone). For the present indicative conjugation of volê, see the notes at sentence XIII. Dome is the Friulian for only; a variant thereof is nome. Ricompense is a feminine noun meaning reward. When vê di is employed in the present conditional, it takes on the sense of ought. Examples: o varessis di vê (you ought to have); ce varessiso di vê? (what ought you have?); o varès di fâ (I ought to do); ce varessio di fâ? (what ought I do?); a varessin di viodi (they ought to see); ce varessino di viodi? (what ought they see?). See book I, lesson XLIII for the conjugation of in the present conditional, along with its interrogative forms. So do these words of Christ translate from the Friulian: Di fat se ur volês ben dome a di chei (for if you love only those) che us vuelin ben (who love you), ce ricompense varessiso di vê? (what reward ought you have?). Of volê ben, a number of supplementary examples: ur vuei ben (I love them); nus vuelin ben (they love us); ti vuei ben (I love thee); us vuelin ben (they love you); mi vuelistu ben? (lovest me thou?); i vuelin ben a Zuan (they love John); ur vuei ben ai miei fîs (I love my sons); ur volês ben (you love them); ur volêso ben? (love you them?); i volêso ben a Zuan? (love you John?). Yet more examples of the Friulian equivalent of ought: o varès di pensâi parsore (I ought to think it over); tu varessis di doprâlu (thou oughtest to use it); parcè no varessino di jessi contents? (why ought they not be content?); parcè no varessie di vêi volût ben a di chel om? (why ought she not have loved that man?).

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